The contents of a cell are separated from the external fluids.
The sphingolipids are the main components of a cell.
In this chapter, we saw that the phospholipids have a nonpolar region, with two long-chain fatty acids and a polar region.
In a cell, two layers of phospholipids are arranged with their hydrophilic heads at the outer and inner surfaces.
The inner layer of the cell is in contact with the internal contents, while the outer layer is in contact with the external fluids.
In the fluid mosaic model of a cell, cholesterol is embedded in a bilayer of phospholipids.
The carbon chains at the cis double bonds are not perfect.
The lipid bilayer is not a fixed structure but a fluid one.
The outer surface of the cell is made up of lipids and proteins.
These chains project into the fluid environment where they are responsible for cell recognition and communication with chemical messengers.
20 to 25% of the lipid bilayer in animals is cholesterol.
Because cholesterol is large and rigid, it reduces the flexibility of the bilayer and adds strength to the cell.
An alignment of the nonpolar sections toward the center with the polar sections on the outside creates a barrier that prevents the contents of a cell from mixing with the fluids on the outside of the cell.
Cholesterol adds strength to the cell.
It is necessary that certain substances can enter and leave the cell.
The main function of a cell is to allow the movement of ion and molecule from one side to the other.
There are several ways in which materials are transported into and out of a cell.
They diffuse into the cell if their concentrations are greater outside than inside.
They diffuse out of the cell if their concentrations are higher.
The transport of ion and molecule in and out of the cell can be accomplished by these channels.
The Na+ concentration is greater inside a cell and the K+ concentration is greater outside.
A molecule moves.
Carbon dioxide moves through a cell.
Susan told Rebecca that she understands how to maintain a plan is a lifelong process.
Rebecca was diagnosed with less beef and her children were tested for FH.
Her older son chicken is being treated with a statin after being diagnosed with FH.
Her younger son does not have FH.
Rebecca kept her new diet low in fats and high in fiber for the next year.
She increased her exercise using a treadmill and lost 35 lbs.
The amount of O dropped from 410 to 395.
The medication helps lower cholesterol levels.
Lipi Fenofibrate (TriCor tor), rosuvastatin (Crestor), simvastatin (Zocor), and lovastatin (Mevacor) are some of the common medications used.
There are functional groups in Pravachol.
There are functional groups in TriCor.
A blood test six months after Rebecca started using Pravachol showed that she had a total cholesterol of 18.
After adding the fibrate TriCor to the statin, Rebecca's blood test showed a total cholesterol of 14 percent.
A wax is made from long-chain alcohol and long-chain fatty acid.
Fats have higher melting and are more saturated than vegetable oils.
Draw the reactions of hydrogenation, hydrolysis, or saponification.
The ester bonds in triacylglycerols are an even number of carbon atoms.
A triacylglycerol may be heated with a strong base pro bond or with two or more double bonds.
The double bonds are usually cis.
There is a group attached to alcohol or glycerol.
In a sphingomyelin, the alcohol sphingosine forms an amide, which in turn bonds with a fatty acid and regulates water balance and glucose levels in the cells.
The steroids have structures and functions.
Steroids contain the steroid nucleus, which is a fused structure of four rings.
Steroids include cholesterol, bile salts, and steroid hormones.
HDL transports cholesterol from the tissues to the liver for elimination, and is composed of two rows oflipids.
The structure of cholesterol is closely related to the steroid hormones and the cholesterol is dependent on the cholesterol for its synthesis.
Sex hormones, such as estrogen and testosterone, are used for sexual characteristics and reproduction.