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15.2 Fatty Acids -- Part 1
Draw a formula for a fatiguing acid and identify it as either saturated or unsaturated.
The long carbon chain makes the carboxylic acid part insoluble in water.
Lauric acid is a 12-carbon acid found in coconut oil.
The shorthand description for lauric acid is 12:0; 12 for the number of Identifying Fatty Acids carbon atoms and 0 for the number of double bonds.
Half of the fat in plants and animals is saturated and the other half is unsaturated.
cis double bonds are found in almost all naturally occurring unsaturated fatty acids.
Line-angle formulas can be used to show its structures.
The cis structure is more prevalent in naturally occurring unsaturated fatty acids.
The carbon chain has a "kink" at the double bond site.
The human body is capable of making some acids.
Humans can't synthesise enough amounts of linolenic acid and arachidonic acid.
The role of fat in adult nutrition is not well understood.
Adults don't usually have a deficiency.
Many disper to 15.10 sion forces between the carbon chains can be achieved because the saturated fatty acids fit closely together.
The weak forces of attraction become important when there is close proximity of the fatty acids.
A lot of energy and higher temperatures are required to separate the fatty acids.
The longer the carbon chain, the higher the temperatures need to melt.
The cis double bonds cause the carbon chain to bend, giving the molecule an irregular shape.
Saturated fatty acids have more dispersion forces between carbon chains than the other way around.
We might think of saturated fatty acids as regular shaped chips in a can.
Like irregularly shaped chips, the unsaturated fatty acids are not close together.
Less energy is required to separate these molecule, which makes the melting points of them lower than those of saturated fatty acids.
The majority of the oils are liquids at room temperature.
High melting points can be found in saturated fatty acids.
Lower melting points are caused by the inability of molecules to fit closely together.
The vaccenic acid is found in dairy products.
The number of carbon atoms and double bonds in vaccenic acid is given in shorthand.
A carboxylic acid group is found in vaccenic acid.
It has 18 carbon atoms.
MUFA is a type of fat.
It is insoluble in water.
The number of carbon atoms and double bonds in palmitoleic acid is given in shorthand.
Prostaglandins increase and decrease blood pressure.
What are the functions of the uterus?
Inflammation and pain are caused by pain.
The treatment of pain,fever, and inflammation is based on the inhibition of the enzymes that convert arachidonic acid to prostaglandins.
NSAIDs, such as aspirin, block the production of prostaglandins and in doing so decrease pain and inflammation.
Naproxen and Naprosyn are two of the NSAID's.
The long use of Try Practice Problems 15.13 can cause damage to the body.
The American diet has changed to include rence of atherosclerotic and heart attacks due to the fact that the amount of saturated fat in the diet is not as bad as it used to be.
The Inuit diet has less saturated fat and more unsaturated fat.
The change is due to research that shows that atherosclerotic and heart land animals are caused by saturated fats from fish.
Unsaturated fats are found in both fish and vegetable oils.
Salmon, tuna, and herring can provide higher amounts of the from the methyl end of the carbon chain if the first double bond occurs at carbon 6.
Omega is the last letter in the Omega 3 fatty acids, which help diminish the possibility of developing a Greek alphabet and is used to signify the end.
The first double bond occurs at the third carbon counting from the methyl group in the Omega 3 type of fish oils.
Cholesterol plaques are found in the walls of the blood vessels.
Blood pressure goes up when blood has to squeeze through a smaller opening.
There is a chance of blood clot blocking the blood vessels and causing a heart attack as more plaque forms.
The tendency of blood platelets to stick together is reduced by the presence of Omega 3 fatty acids.
If the ability of the platelets to form blood clot is reduced too much, high levels of Omega 3 can increase bleeding.
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