There was a rise in nationalism in Southeast Asia.
In dia, China, and Japan had nationalists who wanted political independence and freedom from foreign rule.
They ran up against a stone wall in the Dutch East Indies.
America and Japan were obstacles to Filipino independence.
In their colonies, the French rejected liberal political re forms.
The growth of an equal and stubborn Com munist opposition under Ho Chi Minh was stimulated by this uncompromising attitude.
The Dutch made some concessions after the First World War in order to establish a people's council.
The Dutch jailed all the important nationalist leaders in the 1930s.
The Dutch were determined to hold on.
A well-established nationalist movement in the Philippines achieved greater success.
The Spanish had missionaries in the Philippines.
The Filipinos were 80 percent Catholic by the late 19th century.
Filipinos have a common cultural heritage and racial origin.
Education was advanced for girls in Southeast Asia.
The westernized elite turned first to reform and then to revolution as a result of economic development.
In Egypt and Turkey, long-standing intimate contact with Western civilization created a strong nationalist move at an early date.
When the United States took the Philippines from Spain in the Spanish-American War of 1898, Filipino nationalists were bitterly disappointed.
The United States promoted capitalistic economic development in the Philippines.
In British India, an elected legislature was given some real powers.
President Wilson promised independence in 1919, but the Republican administrations saw it as a distant goal.
The demands for independence grew in the 1920s.
The Great Depression was the turning point in the movement for Filipino independence.
The Philippines appeared to be a liability as the United States collapsed in the 1930s.
The American farm groups wanted protection from cheap Filipino sugar.
The labor unions wanted an end to Filipino immigration.
The Philippines became a self governing commonwealth in 1934 after Congress responded to public pressure.
Others weren't sure if the American presence was the problem.
Politics and state building took root in Asia in the late 19th and early 20th century because nationalism drove politics and state building in Europe in the 19th century.
While nationalism in Europe developed out of a desire to turn cultural unity into political reality and create imagined communities out of strangers, in Asia nationalism developed out of opposition to European domination.
Asian modernizers pressed the nationalist cause by demanding an end to outdated conservative traditions that they argued only held back the development of modern, independent nations capable of throwing off Western domination and existing as equals.
Some of the most re markable leaders of the twentieth century were produced by the nationalist cause in Asia.
In Chapter 32 we will discuss how nationalist leaders shaped the freedom struggle and the resulting independence according to their own ideological and personal visions.
One-party Communist rule replaced imperialist rule in China.
The partition of British India into Hindu India and Muslim Pakistan and Bangladesh destroyed Gandhi's dream of a unified India.
After a series of wars with Israel, Egypt began to play a significant role in efforts to find a peaceful resolution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.
The conflict continues because of nationalist and religious feelings on both sides.
After forcing the French out of Vietnam, Ho Chi Minh faced the United States in a long and deadly war.
In 1975, a unified Vietnam gained its independence, but was under the control of the Communists.
Japan was an exception to what happened in the rest of Asia.
The Japanese implemented an unprecedented program of modernization and westernization in the late 1800s after a long period of isolation.
After the Great War, Japan took control of former German colonies as mandated territories in China, Korea, Vietnam, Taiwan, and other places.
In the next chapter, we will see how ultranationalism drove national policy in the 1930s, leading to Japan's defeat in World War II.
You can do these exercises online.
There are some basic terms about this period.
A more advanced understanding of the chapter material is required for the exercise below.
To compare and contrast nationalist movements in Turkey, India, China, and Japan, fill in the table below with descriptions of four key factors that shaped the development of nationalist movements in each country.
Now that you've reviewed key elements of the chapter, try to see the bigger picture.
In your answers, use specific examples from the chapter.
Imagine that you have to explain Chapter 29 to someone who hasn't read it.