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12. Manifest Destiny -- Part 3
After removal in the 1830s, the Cherokee, Choctaw, and Chickasaw collaborated with missionaries to build their own school systems.
Education would help protect political sovereignty.
Within two years, eighteen schools were included in the Cherokee Nation's public school system.
Many of the students educated in these tribally controlled schools later served their nations as teachers, lawyers, physicians, bureaucrats, and politicians.
The dream of creating a democratic utopia in the West was dependent on those who picked up their possessions and moved west.
Western settlers settled along the rivers.
Religion is often carried from eastern settlements.
A strong sense of cooperation was encouraged by these shared understandings.
The fertile area between the Mississippi River and the Appalachian Mountains was referred to by most Americans as the West before the Mexican War.
With soil exhaustion and land competition increasing in the East, most early western migrants sought a greater measure of stability and self-sufficiency by engaging in small-scale farming.
Boosters of these new agricultural areas along with the U.S. government encouraged the perception that the West was a land of opportunity.
Women migrants are expected to conform to restrictive gender norms while also carrying the double burden of travel.
According to the "cult of true womanhood," the key virtues of femininity were piety, purity, domesticity, and submissiveness.
Women were expected to stay in the home.
As they traveled west, men and women were accompanied by these values.
More opportunities for women were created by an openness of frontier society that existed.
In order to provide food for the family, partners were needed to set up a homestead and work in the field.
Some people were able to informally negotiate more power in their homes because of the short supply of suitable wives.
The proper role of the U.S. government in paying for internal improvements was the topic of this debate.
frontier development was seen as a self-driven undertaking that required private risk and investment.
The federal government's role in providing the infrastructure needed to give migrants the push toward engagement with the larger national economy was seen by others.
Federal aid was essential for the conquest and settlement of the region.
George Catlin painted Native Americans.
Crystal Stone was the wife of a Blackfoot leader.
There were economic busts that threatened western farmers.
The economy worsened after the Panic of 1819.
Farmers were unable to make their loan payments because of falling prices.
Many migrants lost their land as the distant market economy forced them farther west to escape debt.
The federal government sought to increase access to land in the West and lower the amount of land required for purchase.
Smaller lots made it easier for more farmers to clear land and begin farming.
Economic growth was spurred by improvements in travel and exchange.
Improvements were made to the canal in the east while road building was done in the west.
Congress allocated funds for internal improvements.
The National Road was pushed farther west by federal money.
The improvements needed to be constructed by laborers to increase employment opportunities and encourage nonfarmers to move to the West.
Engagement with the new economy made it hard to reject the promised wealth.
Some Americans were against spending money on roads because they were expensive to build and maintain.
The use of steamboats grew quickly.
Local, state, and federal funds helped connect rivers and streams as water trade and travel grew in popularity.
The eastern landscape has hundreds of miles of canals.
The Erie Canal was one of the earliest projects.
The Great Lakes to New York City project was completed in 1824.
New York became the center for commercial import and export in the United States because of the profitability of the canal.
The rapid growth of towns and cities was encouraged by railroad boosters.
Rail lines promise to move commerce faster, but they also encouraged the spreading of towns farther away from traditional waterway locations.
The transportation system was hampered by technological limitations, constant repairs, and conflicts with American Indians.
The rapid expansion of railroads after the Civil War was enabled by this early establishment of railroads.
Economic chains of interdependence stretched over hundreds of miles of land.
America's manifest destiny became wedded to both economic development and territorial expansion.
One of the main forces behind the Texas Revolution was the debate over slavery.
Mexico hopes to attract new settlers to its northern areas to create a buffer between it and the powerful Comanche.
New immigrants from the southern United States poured into Mexican Texas.
Mexicans and former Americans in the area were at odds over the next twenty-five years due to Anglo influence and American designs.
In order to quell both anger and immigration, Mexico banned slavery and required all new immigrants to convert to Catholicism.
American immigrants were eager to expand their agricultural fortunes.
In response, Mex ManIfest DestIny 329 ican authorities closed their territory to any new immigration in 1830, a prohibition ignored by Americans who often squatted on public lands.
Santa Anna repudiated the federalist Constitution of 1824, pursued a policy of authoritarian central control, and crushed several revolts throughout Mexico.
Santa Anna's centralizing policies were opposed by Anglo settlers in Mexican Texas.
Texas was declared a separate state within Mexico by issuing a statement of purpose that emphasized their commitment to the Constitution of 1824.
After the Mexican government angrily rejected the offer, Texian leaders abandoned their fight for the Constitution of 1824 and declared independence on March 2, 1836.
Santa Anna massacred hundreds of Texian prisoners at the Alamo and Goliad.
The Mexican army pursued the retreating Texian army deep into East Texas, causing a mass panic among American civilians known as the Runaway Scrape.
The surprise attack from the outnumbered Texian army led by Sam Houston on April 21, 1836 was caused by the confident Santa Anna failing to make adequate defensive preparations.
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