Slavery had existed in the Middle East for a long time, and Muslim expansion ensured a steady flow of slaves captured in war.
The Old and New Testaments accepted slavery the same way the Qur'an did.
Qur'an encourages the freeing of slaves, prescribes just and humane treatment of slaves, and encourages owners to give their slaves the chance to buy it.
The freeing of slaves was thought to lead to paradise.
Women slaves were employed as cooks, cleaners, laundresses, and nursemaids.
Some of them performed as singers, musicians, dancers, and reciters of poetry.
Many female slaves were concubines.
Rich merchants and high officials owned many concubines.
Down the economic ladder, concubines often assumed domestic and sexual duties.
The harem was secured by eunuch guards when women were in it, and when men were not in it.
Eunuchs were said to be more manageable and dependable than men with ordinary desires, so Muslims employed eunuchs as secretaries, tutors, and commercial agents.
Male slaves, eunuchs or not, were also set to work as longshoremen on the docks, as oarsmen on ships, in construction crews, in workshops, and in gold and silver mines.
Slaves fought as soldiers.
Slavery in the Islamic world was different from slavery in the Americas.
Race had no connection to slavery among Muslims, who were prepared to take slaves from Europe as well as Africa.
Slavery in the Islamic world was not the basis for plantation agriculture as it was in the southern United States, the Caribbean, and Brazil in the 18th and 19th century.
Slavery was not common in the Islamic world.
Most slaves who were taken from non-Muslims converted to Islam.
To give Muslim slavery the most positive interpretation, one could say that it provided a means to fill certain needs and that it was not segregation.
A few women slaves performed as dancers, singers, and musicians before an elite audience of rulers, officials, and wealthy merchants.
The harem in the royal palace in Samarra was adorned by a wall painting from the ninth century.
Arab tribal law gave women no legal power before Islam.
Parents paid for their daughters, and their husbands could end the union at will.
There were no property or succession rights for women.
The Qur'an wanted to improve the social position of women.
The Qur'an emphasizes moral precepts, not descriptions of social practice, and the text is open to different interpretations.
Modern scholars agree that the Islamic sacred book intended women to be the spiritual equals of men and gave them economic rights.
The early Umayyad period had active roles for women in the religious, economic, and political life of the community.
They owned property, traveled widely, and were involved with men in public religious rituals.
The Islamic ideal of equal value to the community did not last.
The supply of slave women increased.
Some scholars theorize that as wealth replaced ancestry as the main criterion of social status, men more and more viewed women as possessions.
The precepts of the Qur'an were seen in more patriarchal ways as society changed.
In this midsixteenth-century illustration of the interior of a mosque, a screen separates the women who are wearing veils and tending children from the men.
The women can hear what is being said, but the men can't.
Men were seen as more dominant in their marriages.
The Qur'an states that men are in charge of women because Allah made the one to excel the other and they spent their property for the support of women.
Good women guard in secret that Allah guarded.
The practices of veiling and seclusion of women have their roots in pre-Islamic times.
Some of the peoples' customs were adopted by the Arab conquerors.
It was probably Byzantine or Persian.
The practice of secluding women is a result of contacts with Persia and other Eastern cultures.
More prosperous households had 800 women stay out of sight.
The harem became a symbol of male prestige and prosperity, as well as a way to distinguish upper-class from lower-class women.
A prolific author of more than seventy books, Abu Hamid al-Ghazali was a Persian philosopher, theologian, jurist, and Sufi.
The trend toward more patriarchal readings of Muslim teachings is reflected in his writings.
There are five benefits to marriage, a) children, b) stilling of passion, c) good housekeeping, d) extended family ties and e) spiritual training.
The purpose of marriage was to continue procreation so that the world should never be devoid of humankind.
For the sake of inner tranquility, it is permissible to marry a slave girl, despite the fact that any offspring will carry slave status, which is a kind of perdition.
Anyone who can afford to marry a free woman is forbidden from doing so.
Slavery for the children is not as grave as the ruination of faith.
The child is only annoyance in this life, whereas the sin of fornication leads to the loss of the Life Hereafter.
If a man's nature is so dominated by sexual desire that one wife alone would not suffice to keep him chaste, it is recommended that he take more than one.
All is well if he enjoys the love and mercy of Allah and feels content with his wives.
If not, substitution is recommended.
She won't engage in a tender conversation with just anyone if she is vain.
If their prospective husbands first saw their daughters, certain men would only allow them to marry them.
Everyone knows that visual inspection is only used to distinguish beauty from ugliness.
He forbade the giving of excessive dower.
The marriage guardian has a duty to look at the qualities of the prospective husband.
He should look to the interest of his precious one, and not give her in marriage to a man of bad character, or who will fail to give her all her due, or who is not her equal in lineage.
He showed his approval of her words.
If a man has several wives, he must treat them equally.
If he wants to take one of them with him on a journey, he should draw lots of them.
Allah's Messenger used to do that.
He should make it up to her if he robs her.
The husband should kiss.
The Prophet once said that if he fell on his wife, he would be eaten by an animal.
A man shouldn't be too happy at getting a boy or sad at getting a girl, for he doesn't know which one will be better for him.
Girls give more peace and the reward they bring is more plentiful.
It is permissible to divorce, but it is not good for Allah.
Permission was granted by the publisher.
As in medieval Europe and traditional India and China, marriage in Muslim society was considered too important to be left to the romantic feelings of the young.
The prospective bride and groom had to find suitable partners before the contract was finalized.
Marriages were arranged after puberty because the bride needed to be a virgin.
Ten to fifteen years older were the ages of the husbands.
A long period of fertility was ensured by youthful marriages.
A wife's responsibilities were dependent on her husband's wealth.
In rural life, a farmer's wife helped in the fields, ground the corn, carried water, and prepared food.
Shopkeepers' wives helped in business.
In an upper-class household, the wife supervised servants, looked after all domestic arrangements, and did whatever was needed for her husband's comfort.
The children were the wife's special domain.
A mother had authority over her children.
In Chinese culture, the prestige of the young wife depended on the production of children as quickly as possible.
A wife's failure to have children was one of the main reasons for a man to divorce or take a second wife.
Like the Jewish tradition, Muslim law allows divorce.
Divorce is not encouraged.
The Prophet said that God hates divorce the most.
Islam maintains a healthy acceptance of sexual pleasure for both males and females despite the traditional Christian view of sexual activity as shameful and only a cure for lust.
The Qur'an allows a man to have four wives if they are treated justly.
The majority of Muslim males were monogamous because they couldn't afford to support more than one wife.
The main commercial routes of the Islamic world were Waterways.
Islam spread throughout North and East Africa, the Balkans, the Caucasus, Central Asia, India, and the islands of Southeast Asia by the year 1500.
Muslim merchants brought their religion to their trade networks.
They were active in the Indian Ocean before Europeans.
Cairo was a major hub for trade in the Mediterranean.
Foreign merchants sailed up the Nile to the Aswan region, traveled east from Aswan by caravan to the Red Sea, and then sailed down the Red Sea to India.
They exchanged textiles, glass, gold, silver, and copper for Asian spices, dyes, and drugs.
Muslims and Jews dominated the trade with India.
The bill of exchange, a written order from one person to another to pay a specified sum of money, and the idea of the joint stock company were all developed by Muslims.
Improvements in technology helped trade.
navigation of the Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean was greatly aided by the Chinese adoption of the magnetic compass, an instrument for determining directions at sea by means of a magnetic needle turning on a pivot.
The construction of larger ships led to a shift in long-distance cargo from luxury goods such as pepper, spices, and drugs to bulk goods such as sugar, rice, and timber.
The wood for Arab ships came from western India.
The Persian and Arab seamen sailed down the east coast of Africa in the late twelfth century to establish trading towns.
Merchants linked Zimbabwe in southern Africa with the Indian Ocean trade and the Middle Eastern trade in these urban centers.
Useful plants were spread as a result of the extensive trade through Islamic lands.
Southeast Asia and India supplied fruit to Muslim Spain.
The prosperity of the Abbasid era was due to the value of this trade.
Arab and Persian merchants were active in the Indian Ocean during the time of Islam.
Wares and products from India and China were in high demand, and they were shipped in stages through a series of exchanges.
The trade is illuminated by traveler accounts and discoveries.
The man known as the Merchant traveled to India and China from the coast of Persia.
He wrote about the piracy and extreme weather he experienced on his many daring voyages, as well as the life of foreign traders in China.
The rare goods of China are caused by the frequent fires at Khanfu, the port for ships and the trading center for merchandise of the Arabs and the Chinese.
Sometimes, the wind throws them on to al-Yaman or other places and they sell their goods there; sometimes they make a long stop to repair their ships, and so on.
A native of Jerusalem, al-Muqaddasi was an Arab geographer who took many journeys to learn about distant regions.
Suhar is a flourishing and populous city.
It is a city with a lot of merchants.
The markets are located along the shore of the sea.
The houses in Suhar are built of burned bricks and wood.
The Persians are masters at it.
The ninth-century Arab or Persian ship that sank in Indonesian waters on its way from China to the Middle East was discovered in 1998.
The ship was 70 feet long and 16 feet wide.
African timber and sails of woven palm leaves were used in the creation of this replica.
The 4ottery was recovered from the ninth-century Belitung wreck.
The bulk of the cargo was mass-produced Chinese ceramics.
The cargo included an octagonal gold cup decorated with Central Asian figures, as well as silver boxes, silver ingots, and star anise.
A small sample of ceramics can be seen in this photo.
Marco Polo traveled through Southeast Asia on his return trip from China to Italy in 1295.
He talks about the situation on the west coast of India.
There are more than 100 ships that cruise out every year as corsairs, seizing other ships and robbing the merchants in Gujarat and Malabar.
They are pirates on a large scale.
The merchants, who are familiar with the habits of the corsairs and know that they are going to encounter them, are not afraid to face them after they have been detected.
They damage their attackers by defending themselves.
One should be captured now and then.
When the corsairs capture a merchant ship, they help themselves to the ship and the cargo, but they don't hurt the men.
They told them to fetch another cargo.
There was a ship that was found in 2003 not far from where the Belitung wreck was found.
lashing boards were used to build it like the Belitung ship.
There were ceramics from Thailand, Vietnam, Persia, and China as well as Chinese bronze mirrors and Indonesian bronze statues.
glassware came from Egypt, Iran, and Mesopotamia.
Using the sources above, along with what you have learned in class and in this chapter, write a short essay on maritime trade in the Indian Ocean between 800 and 1400 and its historical significance.
The arts and sciences were made possible by long-distance trade and Sufism brought a new spiritual and intellectual tradition.
Travelers to Baghdad would have seen slave markets.
In 1354, the Sultan of MoROCCO ordered a sociologist to write an account of the travels of Abu 'Abdallah Ibn Battuta, who had traveled through most of the Islamic world.
The two men worked together.
A travel book written in Arabic was hailed as the richest account of fourteenth-century Islamic culture.
A family of legal scholars had a child named Ibn Battuta.
He gained knowledge of Muslim law, Arabic, and social polish as a youth, and these qualities are considered essential for a civilized Muslim gentleman.
He left Tangiers at the age of twenty-one to go to Mecca.
He went to Alexandria, Cairo, Damascus, and Medina in North Africa.
He kissed the Holy Stone at the Ka'ba, and performed the ritual prayers after reaching Mecca.
He went to see more of the world.
In the next four years, Ibn Battuta traveled to Iraq and to Basra and Baghdad in Persia, then returned to Mecca before sailing down the coast of Africa.
The Persian Gulf region traveled by land to Mecca.
He decided to go to India by way of Egypt, Syria, and Anatolia, across the Black Sea to the plains of western Central Asia, and then back to the Asian steppe.
The sultan of Delhi had Ibn Battuta serve as a judge.
He was chosen by the sultan to lead a diplomatic mission to China.
After the wreck of the expedition off the southeastern coast of India, Ibn Battuta traveled through southern India, Sri Lanka, and the Maldive Islands.
After stopping in Bengal and Sumatra, he traveled to the southern coast of China, under the rule of the Mongols.
Returning to Mecca in 1346, he headed for home.
He traveled about 75 thousand miles after crossing the Strait of Gibraltar and taking a camel caravan to his final destination.
Ibn Battuta was interested in seeing and understanding the world.
He went to the mosques and madrasas to look for the learned jurists.
He was fascinated by the Lighthouse of Alexandria, which was in ruins, as well as the harbor at Kaffa, where two hundred Genoese ships were loaded with silks and slaves for the markets at Venice, Cairo, and Damascus.
An iron constitution is what Ibn Battuta must have had.
He was 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 His thirst for adventure was stronger than his fear of storms and pirates at sea.
The cities of Baghdad and Cordoba, at their peak in the tenth century, were the finest examples of cosmopolitan Muslim civilization.
There was a kaleidoscope of races, creeds, costumes, and cultures on Baghdad's streets.
There was a wide range of goods from all over the world in the shops and marketplaces.
The court was presided over by the caliph.
He invited writers, dancers, musicians, poets, and artists to live in Baghdad, and he is said to have given one singer one hundred thousand silver pieces for a single song.
Shahyar, the legendary king of Samarkand, is the focus of the central story of this fictional collection, as he tries to keep his new bride, Scheherazade, from being unfaithful like his first wife.
She entertained him with one tale a night for 1,001 nights in an effort to delay her execution.
In the end, her husband pardons her.
The cultural leadership of the Islamic world was up for grabs.
With a population of about 1 million, Cordoba had over 200,000 houses for ordinary people and over 60,000 mansions for generals, officials and the wealthy.
Thousands of weavers produced silks, woolens, and brocades that were internationally famous.
There were 27 free schools in Cordoba and a library with 400,000 volumes.
Medicine and surgery, music, philosophy, and mathematics are some of the things that Cordoba's scholars made contributions to.
The Indian game of chess entered western Europe through Cordoba and Persia.
The contemporary nun Hrosth Saxonwita of Gandersheim said that Cordoba was the "ornament of the world".
Formal education for young men involved reading, writing, and the study of the Qur'an was important for its religious message.
The schools were urban phenomena.
They were endowed with salaries for teachers, stipends for students, and living accommodations by wealthy merchants.
The character of the teacher and the intellectual reputation of the institution were not taken into account when selecting a teacher in Islamic higher education.
Students built their careers on their teachers' reputation.
Learning depended on being able to remember things.
A boy in primary school memorised the entire Qur'an.
A student learns an introductory work in one of the branches of knowledge in adolescence.
He looked at the texts in detail.
The teacher looked at the student on the previous day's learning to see if he understood what he had memorised.
The students had to record the teacher's commentary on a particular text in order to learn to write.
The main focus was on the oral transmission of knowledge.
The teacher issued a certificate to the student if he studied the book or collection of traditions with his teacher because Islamic education focused on particular books.
The student was able to transmit a text to his friends on the authority of his teacher.
The Muslim transmission and improvement of papermaking techniques had a special significance to education.
After Chinese papermaking techniques spread west, Muslim papermakers improved on them by adding starch to the sheets.
Papermaking had a huge impact on the collection of knowledge.
Fatwas are legal opinions issued by judges in the public courts, they were trained in the Qur'an, hadith, or some text forming part of the shari'a.
Islamic culture was mixed on the issue of female education.
The law excluded women from participating in the legal, religious, or civic because of the basic Islamic principle that "men are the guardians of women, because God has set the one over the other."
Tradition holds that Muhammad said, "The seeking of knowledge is a duty of every Muslim, but Educational theorists wanted men to study in a sexually isolated environment.
Many young women were educated at home.
According to one biographical dictionary covering the lives of 1,125 women, 411 of them had received a certificate after studying the Qur'an.
There are some striking similarities between Islamic higher education in the 12th to 14th century and that available in Europe or China at the same time.
In Europe and the Islamic countries, the religious authorities ran most schools, while in China the government, local villages, and lineages ran schools.
The personal relationship of teacher and student was seen as key to education in the Islamic world.
The degree granted by the university was the reward for completing a course of study.
At the very highest levels in China, the state ran a civil service examination system that rewarded achievement with appointments in the state bureaucracy.
In Muslim culture, the teacher's evaluation was more important than the school or the state.
There were some striking similarities in the practice of education.
Students in all three cultures had to master a language.
Basic religious, legal, or philosophical texts were the focus of education in all three cultures.
The acquisition and transmission of learning was a big part of all three cultures.
Teachers in all three societies lectured on particular passages, and leading teachers might disagree about the correct interpretations of a particular text, forcing students to question, to think critically, and to choose among differing opinions.
Religious scholars debated the correct interpretation of a particular text, despite the fact that Islamic education relied heavily on memorization of the Qur'an.
The students in this book are learning to think critically and creatively.
The creation of a common culture in the Islamic world was dependent on the spread of the Arabic language among all the people.
The spread of the Arabic language was more important in fostering cultural change after the establishment of the Islamic empire, according to recent scholarship.
The linguistic conversion to Islam was much quicker than the gradual one.
The official language of the state was Arabic.
The Islamic rulers did not force the Greeks and Persians to change their religions.
The conquered peoples were compelled to use the Arabic language.
Over a large part of the world, Arabic produced a cohesive and international culture.
Gregory Bar-Hebraeus, a bishop of the Syrian Orthodox Church, wrote in Arabic.
Modern scholars consider the years from 800 to 1300 to be one of the most brilliant periods in the history of the world.
The basis for later Eastern and Western research was formed from the Greek and Indian findings.
The Muslim medical knowledge was much better than the West's.
The Baghdad physician al-Razi was the first to make the distinction between the two diseases, and his work was translated into Latin and spread in the West.
He talked about the cauterization of wounds and the crushing of stones in the bladder in an important work.
Avicenna is the name of the work of Ibn Sina of Bukhara, known in the West as Muslim science reached its peak.
The funeral procession of the hero Isfandyar is depicted on this page.
The mourners are wailing and pulling at their hair, which is a sign of mourning.
The poem was written by Ferdowsi.
Muslim scholars wrote works on geography, jurisprudence, and philosophy.
The first Muslim thinker to try to harmonize the principles of ethical and social conduct was 870.
Averroes, also known as Ibn Rushid, was a judge in Andalusia and later a royal court physician.
Gregory Bar-Hebraeus, a Syrian writer in the 13th century, wrote on a wide range of subjects, including religion and philosophy, but also on more playful subjects, and his works include a large collection of amusing stories.
Persian, Hebrew, Indian, and Christian wise men are some of the characters in these tales.
Two of his fables are compared with Bar-Hebraeus's tales.
A wolf, a fox, and a lion banded together to slay a goat, a deer, and a hare.
The lion leaped upon the wolf and killed him.
The hare said, "I was born before God created the heavens and the earth," and the fox said, "You are right, for I was present when you were born."
The Birds and Beasts were both conquerors.
A Bat, fearing the uncertain issues of the fight, always fought on the side that he felt was the strongest.
His conduct was obvious to both people when peace was declared.
Being condemned by each for his treachery, he was driven forth from the light of day and hid in dark hiding places.
A Wolf was carrying a lamb he stole from a fold.
The lamb was taken from him by a Lion who met him in the path.