This was a ploy to get votes for Nixon's reelection bid.
The Kissinger plan for a cease- fire was rejected by the Thieu regime in South Vietnam because they were afraid that allowing North Vietnamese troops to remain in the south would lead to a Communist victory.
Two days after the peace talks broke off, Nixon ordered massive bombings of the two largest cities in North Vietnam.
Nixon told Kissinger that he would stop at nothing to bring the enemy to his knees.
We have the power.
The question is whether we have the will to use that power.
The Christmas bombings and the simultaneous U.S. decision to place underwater mines in North Vietnam's Haiphong harbor aroused worldwide protests.
On January 27, 1973, the United States, North and South Vietnam, and the Viet Cong signed an "agreement on ending the war and restoring peace in Vietnam," known as the Paris Peace Accords.
The agreement allowed the United States to end its combat role.
While Nixon and Kissinger claimed that the bombings had brought North Vietnam to its senses, in reality the North Vietnamese kept 150,000 troops in South Vietnam and remained committed to reunification of Vietnam under one government.
The South Vietnamese leaders, who had not been allowed to participate in the negotiations, were willing to accept the agreement on the basis of Nixon's promise that the United States would respond "with full force" to any Communist violations of the agreement.
When Nixon took office in 1969 there were 20,000 American troops who had died, and millions of Southeast Asians who had been killed, wounded, or displaced.
There was fighting in Vietnam and Cambodia.
The diplomatic efforts gained nothing that the president could not have accomplished in 1969 by ending the war on the same terms.
The last combat troops left Vietnam in 1973.
Almost 600 U.S. prisoners of war were released by the North Vietnamese on the same day.
Communist forces gained the upper hand in the war after the cease- fire.
In Cambodia, where fighting had been sporadic, a Communist victory seemed inevitable.
The country of South Vietnam was invaded by the North Vietnamese in 1975.
The Paris Peace Accords promised the U.S. assistance.
Congress is weary of spending and lives in Vietnam.
Thieu flew to Taiwan after he resigned.
The United States had just enough time to leave before the South Vietnamese government.
On April 30, 1975, Americans watched on television as North Vietnamese tanks rolled into the city of Ho Chi Minh City.
Hundreds of thousands of terrified South Vietnamese tried to flee the Communist forces with the help of Americans.
An official from the U.S. punches a man trying to join his family in a crowded airplane.
The longest, most controversial, and least successful war in American history was over.
It left a bad legacy.
The death count for both combatant and civilians increased during the U.S. involvement.
600,000 soldiers and countless civilians were killed in North Vietnam.
More than half a million people from Vietnam became refugees in the United States.
More than 58,000 Americans died, 300,000 were wounded, and 2,500 were declared missing.
The war cost the United States more than $700 billion.
The defining life event for the baby boomers was the Vietnam War, which provided most of the U.S. troops as well as most of the anti- war protesters.
They were divided in many ways by the war.
The loss of the war and news of atrocities committed by American soldiers eroded respect for the military so much that many young people came to regard military service as corrupting and dishonorable.
Vietnam veterans had lost a war in which their country had lost interest.
When they came back, many found their families unwilling to talk about what they had gone through, or they themselves were embarrassed about their involvement in the war.
Larry Langowski from Illinois said that he went over there thinking he was doing something right.
The Vietnam War revealed that America's form of democracy was not easy to transfer to regions of the world that did not have democratic traditions.
Critics noted that imposed democracy is not democratic.
President Truman developed policies to contain communism around the world in order to contain the spread of com munism.
The Democratic party was fractured as a result of opposition to the war.
The Vietnam tragedy is at the root of the confusion and division of the Dem ocratic party, said George McGovern, the anti- war senator and 1972 Democratic presidential nominee.
The decade of American effort in Vietnam proved costly and futile, and the Cambodian Communists won a resounding victory over the U.S.-backed Khmer Repub lic, plunging the country into a horrible bloodbath.
Almost a third of the population was killed by the Khmer Rouge as they organized a campaign to destroy their opponents.
Nixon preferred foreign policy to domestic policy and his greatest successes were in international relations.
Nixon was an expert in foreign affairs and fit in well with the vision of Henry Kissinger.
The design of the U.S. foreign policy after the Vietnam War was to develop friendly relations with the Soviet Union and Communist China.
Henry Kissinger wanted a return to an Eisenhower- era approach to foreign policy that involved using the CIA to covertly pursue America's strategic interests while reducing large- scale military interventions.
American presidents have been determined to prevent any more Communist insurgencies in the Western Hemisphere since Cuba gained control of the island in 1959.
The Socialist party leader, friend of Castro, and critic of the United States, was a leading candidate in 1970.
Both Kissinger and Nixon knew that if Allende were elected, he would take control of industries owned by the U.S. government.
Nixon wanted the CIA to prevent an Allende presidency.
The CIA gave campaign funds to his opponents, but he was elected on October 24, 1970.
The military leaders were encouraged by the CIA to oust him.
General Augusto Pinochet, a ruthless dictator who was friendly to the United States, declared himself head of the government after the army took control of the country in 1973.
In a few months, Pinochet took over dozens of U.S.-owned businesses and executed thousands of political opponents.
The United States was willing to interfere in the democratic process of other nations because it was obsessed with anti- communism and protecting American business interests.
Kissinger told Nixon that the CIA didn't do it, but that they helped put Pinochet in office.
The Nixon Doctrine was unveiled in July 1969 when President Nixon announced the first troop withdrawals from Vietnam.
The United States would provide weapons and money to fight Communist insurgencies, but not American troops.
Nixon said he would pursue partnerships with Communist countries in areas of mutual interest.
Richard Nixon had a gift for doing the unexpected.
Nixon sent Henry Kissinger to Beijing in 1971 to explore the possibility of U.S. recognition of Communist China, the most populous nation in the world.
Kissinger was shocked.
He told his staff that his leader was taking a break.
The United States has refused to recognize the People's Republic of China since 1949 because of Richard Nixon's support.
The time was ripe for a renewal of ties.
Anti- war protests in America, the Cultural Revolution in China, and both the United States and Communist China were eager to resist Soviet expansionism.
President Nixon and Chinese premier Zhou Enlai would toast to each other at a farewell banquet after Nixon's historic visit to China.
The Nationalist Chinese on Taiwan felt betrayed and the Japanese were angry.
The United Nations voted in 1971 to admit the People's Republic of China.
Nixon arrived in Beijing during the week that changed the world.
Americans watched as the president shook hands with Zhou Enlai and drank toasts with Mao.
The People's Republic of China had been isolated from the rest of the world for two decades.
During the president's visit, the two nations agreed to resume trade and eventually reunification of Taiwan with the mainland.
Theliaison offices that served as unofficial embassies were established in Washington and Beijing a year later.
In 1979 diplomatic recognition was formal.
Nixon accomplished a diplo matic feat that his Democratic predecessors couldn't because they were afraid of being branded soft on communism.
Nixon's and Kissinger's bold move gave them leverage with the Soviet Union, which was understandably nervous about a U.S.- Chinese alliance.
The break through was welcomed by China because of tensions with the Soviet Union.
By 1972, the Chinese were more afraid of the Soviet Union than of the US.
The Soviets wanted to ease tensions with the Americans.
In 1972, President Nixon surprised the world by announcing that he would visit Moscow for talks with the Soviet premier.
The high drama of the China visit was repeated in Moscow, with toasts and dinners attended by world leaders who had previously regarded each other as incarnation nations of evil.
The agreement did not end the nuclear arms race, but it did limit the number of missiles with nuclear warheads and prohibit the construction of missile- defense systems.
The United States sold almost a quarter of its wheat crop to the Soviets at a favorable price in new trade agreements produced by the Moscow summit.
The summit resulted in an easing of tensions.
The agreements with China and the Soviet Union changed the global order.
Detente with the Soviet Union would help end the cold war by lowering Soviet hostility to Western influences, which in turn eroded Communist rule from the inside.
The Nixon- Kissinger initiatives in the Middle East were less dramatic and less conclusive than those in China and the Soviet Union, but they showed that the United States at last recognized the legitimacy of Arab interests in the region and its own dependence upon Middle Eastern oil.
On October 6, 1973, Syria and Egypt attacked Israel, and the war began.
Since the Cuban missile crisis, the most dangerous confrontation has been between the United States and the Soviet Union.
The Soviets threatened to military intervene when the Israeli army launched a fierce counterattack that appeared likely to overwhelm Egypt.
Henry Kissinger, who was secretary of state at the time, presided over a National Security Council meeting that placed America's military forces on full alert because of Nixon's drunkenness.
Kissinger flew to Moscow to meet the Soviet premier.
In an attempt to broker a lasting settlement, Kissinger made numerous flights among the capitals of the Middle East, and he negotiated a cease- fire agreement with the Israelis to prevent them from taking additional Arab territory.
Although he failed to find a comprehensive formula for peace, his "shuttle diplomacy" won praise from all sides.
He laid the groundwork for a treaty between Israel and Egypt in 1977.
Nixon was able to stage the presidential campaign of 1972 as a triumphal procession because of his foreign policy achievements.
The main threat to his reelection came from George Wal ace, who had the potential as a third party candidate to deprive the Republicans of conservative southern votes and throw the election to the Democrats.
On May 15, 1972, Wal ace was shot in an assassination attempt.
Nixon ordered aides to make up a story about Wal ace's assassination.
McGovern was nominated by the Democrats as an anti- war liberal.
Robert Kennedy said that George was the most decent man in the Sen ate.
Decency doesn't win elections.
McGovern was dismissed as a left wing Extremist by many.
Nixon brought more than half a million troops home from Vietnam in his campaign.
Nixon won the most electoral votes of any Republican presidential candidate in history.
The popular vote was equal to or better than the total vote, which was 60.8 percent, second only to Lyndon Johnson's victory over Barry Gold water in 1964.
Democrats retained control of Congress, which was a downside for the Republicans.
Nixon remained chronically 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 888-353-1299 He kept a secret "enemies list" and approved plans to break into the offices of his opponents.
He didn't know that his behavior would bring him down.
Nixon aide John Ehrlichman was in charge of a secret team of agents who were accused of sexual improprieties by Democratic senators.
Others were caught.
Gordon Liddy and E. Howard Hunt were in charge of the break in from the hotel across the street.
The police found a lot of money on the burglars.
McGovern's complaints about the bungled break- in seemed like sour grapes from a candidate running far behind.
The White House wanted $1 million for the protection of Nixon and secretly gave him $350,000.
The CIA was discussed as a way to derail the Justice Department's investigation.
The FBI was told by Bob Haldeman, Nixon's chief of staff, to stop investigating the incident because it involved a CIA operation.
White House spokesmen lied to journalists.
In August 1972, he told reporters that he had found no evidence that anyone in the White House or the administration was involved in the Watergate incident.
One of the accused told the full story after being relentlessly questioned by federal judge John J. Sirica, a Nixon supporter and hard- nosed jurist with the nickname "Maximum John" because of his reputation for issuing harsh sentences.
By the time of the Watergate break-in, money to finance such dirty tricks was being illegal and controlled by the White House staff.
Nixon was using his powers to block the investigation.
He instructed his aides to lie under oath and ordered the CIA to keep the FBI out of the case.
The Watergate break-in was part of a larger pattern of corruption and criminality by the White House.
As people began to cooperate with prose cutors, the cover- up crumbled.
The White House gave the burglars hush money and witnesses lied at the trial, according to James McCord.
The names were named by him before the committee.
The White House aides lied about their roles in the cover up.
In 1973, L. Patrick Gray resigned as acting director of the FBI after admitting that he had destroyed incriminating documents for the president.
On July 24, 1973, Nixon addressed the Senate Watergate committee.
John Dean, the White House legal counsel, was dismissed by Nixon because of his cooperation with prosecutors.
He told the committee that the White House cover-up was approved by the president.
Nixon behaved like a lion.
He refused to give documents to the committee because of executive privilege.
A White House aide told the committee that Nixon had installed a secret taping system in the White House, meaning that many of the conversations about the Watergate scandal had been recorded.
The Watergate case was investigated by Harvard law professor Archibald Cox, who took the president to court to get the tapes.
Cox was fired after Nixon refused to release the recordings.
Richardson and his deputy, William Ruckelshaus, resigned rather than fire Cox.
Cox's dismissal made a lot of people angry.
Several newspapers and magazines called for the president to resign or be impeached for obstruction of justice.
Nixon's approval rating was the lowest in presidential history according to a Gal up poll.
Leon Jaworski, the new special prosecutor, took the president to court.
The Rebellion and Reaction of the 1960s-1970s was caused by Nixon's refusal to turn over the tapes.
The president's conver sations degraded the stature of the office because they were so self-serving and bigoted.
At one point in the transcripts, the president told his aides to forget a lot of things.
Nixon was in retreat by the summer of 1974.
He became angry, sad, and crazy as a result of his attempts to make a cover up.
He was drinking heavily and was ingly unstable.
The House Judiciary Committee voted to recommend three articles of impeachment, including obstruction of justice through the payment of hush money to witnesses, abuse of power through the use of federal agencies to deprive citizens of their constitutional rights, and defiance of Congress by withholding the tapes.
Before the House of Represen tatives could vote on impeachment, Nixon gave over the tapes.
Nixon mentioned the White House helicopter before boarding.
Republican leaders urged the president to quit rather than face an impeachment trial.
Senator Barry Goldwater said that there are only so many lies you can take.
Nixon did that on August 9, 1974.
He was the only president to leave office.
Nixon wanted to heal America.
He left the White House for a self imposed exile at his home in San Clemente, California.
Nixon believed that his only mistake was getting caught and that the Watergate affair could have ended his presidency.
Not even a president is above the law, as was shown in the Watergate affair.
Many Americans lost faith in the credibility of elected officials when the president was called to justice.
If there was a silver lining in the dark cloud of Watergate, it was the resilience of the press, Congress, the courts, and public opinion.
Several pieces of legis lation were passed in the aftermath of the scandal.
In 1974 Congress enacted legislation that set new ceilings on political campaign contributions and expenditures to correct abuses.
Congress strengthened the 1966 Freedom of Information Act to require prompt responses to requests for information from government files and to place on government agencies the burden of proof for classification of information as secret.
The Watergate crisis dominated national politics during Richard Nixon's last year in office.
Vice President Spiro Agnew was forced to resign in October of 1973 for accepting bribes from Maryland contractors before and during his term in office.
The vice president at the time of Nixon's resignation was Gerald Ford, a square- jawed, plain- speaking former House minority leader from Michigan whom Nixon had appointed to succeed Agnew under the provisions of the Twenty- Fifth Amendment.
Ford, an honest and decent man who held a law degree from Yale, was sworn in as the nation's chief executive on August 9, 1974, the only person in history to serve as both vice president and president without being elected to those offices.
Ford said in a televised address that he had not been elected President by your votes.
Less than a month after taking office, Ford pardoned Nixon for any crimes he may have committed while in office.
There was a storm of controversy after Ford's pardon.
A House subcommittee wanted to know if Nixon had made a secret deal for the pardon.
The 38th president wondered why he had pardoned some people who had not been charged with a crime.
Ford's presidency was hobbled by the pardon.
He was suspect in the eyes of many voters because he did what he thought was the right thing.
His approval rating went from 71 percent to 49 percent in one day.
The leader of the opposition in the House of Representatives used to say that the federal government exercised too much power.
In his first fifteen months as president, Ford vetoes thirty- nine bil s passed by the Congress, which is more than any other president.
The economy was the most important issue during Ford's brief presidency.
The nation entered its deepest recession since the Great Depression in 1974.
The federal budget deficit hit a record in 1975, as the rate of inflation reached double digits.
Ford said that infla tion had become a public enemy.
The WIN buttons were a joke and a symbol of Ford's ineffectiveness in the fight against stagflation.
Ford signed a tax reduction bill that failed to generate great quantities of economic growth.
There are WIN themed collectibles.
The budget deficit grew from included stickers, buttons, clothing and even earrings.
Henry Kissinger was stripped of his dual role as national security adviser while Ford retained him as secretary of state.
Nixon had goals of stability in the Middle East, friendly relations with China, and detente with the Soviet Union.
The two nations agreed to rely on diplomacy rather than force to settle future disagreements after Kissinger's Middle East diplomacy produced an important agreement.
The criticism of the South Vietnamese government in the face of the North Vietnamese invasion drowned out the limited but significant achievements.
Conservative Republicans led by Ronald Reagan lambasted Ford and Kissinger for their policy of detente toward the Soviet Union.
Reagan argued that the efforts of Nixon, Kissinger, and Ford were helping to ensure the continued existence of the Soviet Union.
The political parties were disorganized as they prepared for the election.
Ronald Reagan, the darling of the Republican party's growing conservative wing, had to fend off a challenge from Gerald Ford.
James "Jimmy" Carter Jr., who served as governor of Georgia, was chosen by the Democrats.
Carter had several assets.
A former naval officer and engineer turned peanut farmer, he was one of several Democratic southern governors who sought to move their party away from its traditional "tax and spend" liberalism.
He charged that the federal government was "horrible, bloated, con fused".
Reporters covering the campaign marveled at a Southern Baptist candidate who was a "born again" Christian, and he also trumpeted his status as a political outsider.
Ford was viewed as a nice guy, but not by the majority of voters.
Carter revived the New Deal voting alliance of southern whites, blacks, urban labor unionists, and ethnic groups like Jews and Latinos to get 41 million votes to Ford's 39 million.
Carter swept every state in the region except Virginia because of the large turn out of African Americans in the South.
The appeal of Walter F. Mondale, his liberal running mate, helped him.
Herbert Hoover was the first president to lose his reelection bid.
The low voter turn out was the most significant story of the election.
The turnout for the election was the lowest since the Second World War.
One man stated that he was a three- time loser.
I got war after voting for the peace candidate.
I got crime after I voted for the law and order candidate.
It was not a good sign for a new Democratic president to have an alienating voter.
Civil rights activism inspired a heightened interest in social causes among the young.
Richard Nixon's southern strategy drew conserva tive southern white Democrats to the Republican party.
The Voting Rights Act of 1968 was overrode by Congress.
Nixon promised to secure "peace with honor" in Vietnam but years passed before the war ended.
The bombing of North Vietnam in December 1972 and the publication of the Pentagon Papers in 1971 caused more protests, but a month after the bombings began, North and South Vietnam agreed to a cease- fire called the Paris Peace Accords.
Foreign policy was Nixon's greatest accomplishment.
They helped ease tensions in the Middle East.
Nixon was succeeded by Vice President Gerald Ford.
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The Republican lets her hat speak for her at the convention.
The United States lost a lot of its self-confidence in the 1970s as it faced difficult lessons about the limits of its power and financial resources.
Americans were frustrated by the failed Vietnam War, the Watergate scandal, and the spike in oil prices.
Stagflation and gasoline shortages were exasperating for a country accustomed to economic growth.
In July 1976, as the United States celebrated its independence from Great Britain, many people were downsizing their expectations of the American dream.