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Chapter 52: Social Motivation
What you are motivated to do is influenced by your attitudes and goals, the society you live in, and the people you surround yourself with.
One theory that tries to explain the motivation behind the more complex behaviors is achievement motivation.
Our desires to master complex tasks and knowledge are examined by achievement motivation.
Humans and other animals seem to be motivated to figure out our world and master skills regardless of the benefits.
Some people have high achievement motivation and feel motivated to challenge themselves more than other people.
They always set the bar higher.
This varies from person to person but from activity to activity.
It's fortunate that we don't have time to pursue every possible interest because not many people are motivated to achieve in every aspect of life.
Some people have a higher-than-average achievement motivation.
There is a difference between achievement motivation and optimum arousal.
Meeting personal goals and acquiring new knowledge are achieved by achievement motivation.
The level of a person's arousal is determined by whether or not it is productive in meeting a goal.
In a person, the concepts might overlap.
The concepts refer to different aspects of motivation.
The social factors that influence motivation can be divided into two categories.
Extrinsic motivators are rewards that we get from outside ourselves.
We get internal rewards such as enjoyment or satisfaction.
Think about your own motives.
Knowing what type of motivation an individual responds to can give managers and other leaders insight into what strategies will be most effective.
Group members might be tested or evaluated by psychologists in order to alter group policies based on their motivation.
Studies show that motivation is the most effective way to continue a behavior.
For a short period of time, extrinsic motivation is very effective.
Unless some intrinsic motivation continues to motivate the behavior, the desired behavior will end.
Research into how managers act is related to their motivation.
The benefits of moving from a theory X attitude to a theory Y attitude are shown in cross-cultural studies.
Some companies hire consultants from other countries to teach them how to motivate their employees.
Sometimes what you want to do in a situation is clear to you, but at other times you have to make a decision.
Motivational conflicts are discussed by psychologists.
When you have to choose between two desirable outcomes, the approach-approach conflict occurs.
Imagine if one of your friends invited you to go to Puerto Rico for Spring Break and another asked you to go to San Francisco.
You have a conflict if both choices appeal to you.
An avoidance-avoidance conflict occurs when you have to choose between two unattractive outcomes.
If your parents gave you a choice between staying home and cleaning out the garage or going on a family trip to visit some distant relatives, you might experience an avoidance-avoidance conflict.
There is an approach-avoidance conflict when a goal has both attractive and unattractive features.
The taste of the ice cream is appealing but its effects on you are not.
People experience multiple approach-avoidance conflicts.
You have to choose between two or more things that have both desirable and undesirable features.
It may be difficult to choose which college to attend.
University A is the best academically, but you don't like its location.
University B is close to your family and boyfriend or girlfriend so you would like to go somewhere with better weather.
Our motivation is related to our emotional state.
It's difficult to imagine one without the other.
Theories that try to explain our emotional experiences are created by psychologists.
One of the earliest theories about emotion was put forth by William James.
They think that stress causes us to feel emotion.
When the big bad wolf jumps out of the woods, Little Red Riding Hood's heart races and she feels afraid.
For historical purposes, the James-Lange theory is mentioned.
Current theories show that biological changes are not the sole cause of emotions.
Walter Cannon and Philip Bard questioned the order of events.
They showed that the same changes in the body correspond to different emotional states.
The cognitive awareness of the emotional state and the biological change occur at the same time.
Cannon thinks the thalamus is responsible for both the biological change and the cognitive awareness of emotions.
Cannon believed that when the thalamus receives information about our environment, it sends signals to our cortex and nervous system at the same time.
Cannon underestimated the role of the thalamus.
The amygdala is involved in many other brain structures.
Stanley Schachter's two-factor theory explains emotional experiences in a more complete way than either the James-Lange or Cannon-Bard theories do.
Both physical and mental responses can cause an emotional response.
Little Red Riding Hood's emotional response depends on her heart racing and her cognitive label of the event as being scary.
When both groups are exposed to the same stimuli, people who are already aroused experience more intense emotions.
If your heart rate is already elevated after a jog, you will be more frightened by a sudden surprise than you would be if you were resting.
Two-factor theory shows that emotion is dependent on the interaction between two factors.
No matter what culture we grew up in, we are likely to use the same facial expressions for basic emotions like happiness, sadness, anger, disgust, and fear.
Researchers show pictures of people experiencing these emotions to people from different cultures and then ask them to label them.
People from all over the world are able to identify these facial expressions.
The facial expressions we make for basic emotions may be an innate part of our makeup according to this area of research.
Many of the examples used to describe emotional theories involve stress.
Emotions and stress are related.
Stress is studied by psychologists to help us with problems caused by stress.
Certain life events and how we react to changes in the environment can be referred to as stressors or stress reactions.
Studies try to understand how we respond to stress.
One of the first instruments to measure stress was designed by psychologists.
The social readjustment rating scale measured stress using life-changing units.
A person taking the SRRS reported changes in their life, such as selling a home.
Making a career change would be counted as more LCUs than moving to a new apartment.
A major life change increases the score.
Getting married is a positive event that counts as a negative event like being fired.
A person with a low score is more likely to have stress-related diseases than a person with a high score.
Other researchers have designed more sophisticated measures of stress that take into account individual perceptions of how stressors are and whether they are pleasant or unpleasant.
The more precise measures of stress show a higher correlation with disease.
The general response humans and other animals have to a stress event is described in Hans Selye's general adaptation syndrome.
Our response to physical and emotional stresses is very consistent.
Selye's model explains some of the documented problems associated with stress.
Some forms of ulcers and heart conditions can be caused by excessive stress.
Our bodies can only be prepared for a challenge if our resources are exhausted and we are vulnerable to disease.
Studies show that a lack of control over events makes stress worse.
Rats with control over the duration of electric shocks are less likely to get ulcers than rats without this control.
Even though both patients get the same amount of morphine, a patient given control over the flow of the drug will report better pain control.
Control over events tends to reduce stress, while a lack of control can make the event more stressed.
Five suggested answers or completions are followed by each of the questions or incomplete statements.
Pick the one that is the best.
Stress is not used to describe achievement motivation.
Secondary drives are extrinsic motivation.
Theory Y managers allow groups to work on their own.
Theory X managers think they are motivated.
Theory Y is more common in individualist cultures.
Theory X is used with people with low arousal levels.
Our heart starts to race and we feel excited.
Our breathing rate increases because of fear.
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