Edited Invalid date
14.4 Genomics -- Part 2
It took a long time for the scientific community to fully appreciate the revolutionary idea of the "movable elements" in corn.
Their significance was only realized in the past few decades.
Transposons, also known as "jumping genes," have now been discovered in many organisms.
McClintock received a prize for her discoveries of transposons and genetics.
Gene expression may be disrupted by transposons.
A purple-coding genes codes for a purple color.
The white kernels are caused by the inability of this gene to code for purple pigment.
Indian corn has a variety of colors and patterns.
Through evolution, this DNA has been highly conserved even though it does not contain any genes.
Large tracts of this mysterious DNA have remained almost unchanged in the millions of years since humans and mice were separated.
Scientists have found that between 74% and 93% of the genome is transcribed intoRNA.
What was thought to be a wasteland of junk DNA may be more important than previously thought.
Regulatory functions may be carried out more easily by small-sizedRNAs.
Humans may be able to achieve structural complexity far beyond what is seen in the unicellular world by using a previously overlooked RNA signaling network.
The findings have revealed a much more complex, dynamic genome than was imagined a few decades ago.
The results of transcription should be the focus of the modern definition of a gene.
In the past, the genes were considered to be a nucleic acid sequence that codes for the sequence of amino acids.
Geneticists have known for a long time that all three types of RNA are useful products, and that they are transcribed from DNA.
We know that regions that don't code for a protein can produce RNAs with various functions.
The central dogma of genetics has been expanded by this knowledge, which recognizes that a gene product does not need to be aprotein and a gene does not need to be on a single part of a chromosomes.
It is possible to split the DNA sequence that results in a product.
One or more products can result from any DNA sequence.
Some prokaryotes have genes.
The genetic material doesn't need to be DNA.
We can see this as an expansion of the central dogma of genetics.
Today's emphasis is on organisms since we know the structure of our genome.
Patterns of gene expression are useful to understand the function of genes.
A small glass slide or a Silicon chip are used to hold the small amounts of known DNA that are fixed onto the DNA chips.
The use of a microarray can show you what genes are turned on in a specific cell at a particular time and under certain circumstances.
The genes are active in the cell when the cell's messenger molecule bind with the various genes on the array.
Gene expression can be studied using DNA microarrays.
There are rows of genes in this chip that show the presence of certain genetic disorders.
If the individual's DNA fragments bind to the same sequence on the chip as the one that is missing, the individual will have the missing sequence.
The genetic profile can show if any genetic illnesses are likely and what type of drug therapy is most appropriate for that individual.
Model organisms have many genetic mechanisms and cellular pathways in common with humans, which is why they are used in genetic analysis.
Through the study of these genomes, functional genomics has been advanced.
Other model organisms can be used to learn from genetically modifying mice.
We might be able to use these organisms instead of mice to test therapies for Parkinson disease.
The model organisms have a shorter generation time than humans, so comparative genomics can be used to study changes in a genome over time.
Understanding the evolutionary relationships between organisms can be helped by comparing genomes.
The genomes of all animals are very similar.
Chimpanzees and humans have the same genes, but they did not expect to find that ours is 85% the same as that of a mouse.
Evolutionary relationships between organisms are likely to be revealed.
The study of the structure, function, and interaction of cells is called Proteomics.
Different regulatory mechanisms account for the specialization of cells.
Figuring out the function of the proteins within a particular cell type is one of the goals of proteomics.
Depending on circumstances, each cell can produce thousands of different proteins, which can vary not only between cells but also within each cell.
The goal of proteomics is overwhelming.
Microarray technology can help with this project.
Review flashcards and saved quizzes
Getting your flashcards
Privacy & Terms