ChAPTER 18 -- Part 2: The Spread of Chinese Civilization:
Many of the kingdoms of southeast Asia, as well as the emperors of Japan, were included in the system.
The Koreans were the most committed to the arrangements.
Chinese emperors were content to receive their embassies rather than try to conquer the Koreans.
The Son of Heaven was acknowledged by these emissaries in the form of splendid gifts and a series of ritual bows in which the supplicant prostrated himself before the throne.
To most of the people involved, this was a small price to pay for the benefits they received from the Middle Kingdom.
Not only did submission and tribute guarantee peace with the Chinese, but they brought richer gifts than the tribute bearers offered to the Chinese ruler.
Privileged access to Chinese learning, art, and manufactured goods was provided by the tributary system.
Merchants who were able to buy up Chinese manufacturers and sell their own goods in the lucrative Chinese market depended on their country's participation in the Chinese system.
There were contingents of scholars in missions from Japan, Korea, and Vietnam.
They purchased Chinese scrolls and works of art to fill the libraries and embellish the palaces back home after studying at Chinese academies or Buddhist monasteries.
The tribute system became the main channel of trade between China and its neighbors.
The Sil rulers rebuilt their capital at Kumsong to look like their Tang counterpart.
There were parks, lakes, and a separate district to house the imperial family, which were laid out on a regular grid.
They made up a large portion of the capital's population with their large extended fami.
The Confucian examination system was introduced by the Silla rulers, and some of them studied in Chinese schools.
Most of the aristocracy chose to live in the capital.
They were able to do that because most positions in the government were occupied by members of the aristocracy and they had no knowledge of the Confucian classics.
The Korean elite preferred Buddhism over Con fucianism because it was more associated with Chinese culture.
The Korean royal family and monasteries endowed works of religious art, which became major forms of Korean cultural creativity.
The capital at Kumsong became crowded with Buddhist temples, which were usually made of wood.
Buddhist monks were always present at the ruler and members of the royal family.
The schools of Buddhism that caught on were Chinese.
Chinese prototypes of Korean artwork and monastic design.
The location of monasteries and pagodas in high places followed Chinese ideas about the need to balance supernatural forces.
The Koreans would borrow from the Chinese and do better than their teachers.
The Sil a and Koryo eras produced pottery.
The techniques of porcelain manufacture were learned from the Chinese.
Even Chinese connoisseurs admired and collected all of the major civilized.
They pioneered in making centers of east Asia produced refined ceramics, oxide glazes that were used to make the black and rust-colored stoneware.
The pitcher in Figure 18.7 was a characteristic of this era.
That has been printed.
The Chinese were the first to develop wood block and later, from earlier periods of Korean history, has become metal-type printing.
After the metal type was introduced into Korea, local artisans came up with an ingenious way to keep it in the long register in the museums.
The Chinese found that the metal type wore down very fast and was difficult to stable in the register.
The pure land that had a strong appeal for the ordinary people was the exception to the rule.
The aristo cratic families were divided into several different groups that did not socialize with the rest of the population.
They dominated the social and economic life of the entire kingdom by filling most of the posts in the Korean bureaucracy.
The Chinese and Japanese were given a lot of fancy clothing, tea, scrolls, and artwork by Korea in exchange for trade.
Korea exported mainly raw materials, such as forest products and metals, which were mined by slaves who lived in horrible conditions.
Members of the royal family financed artisan production for export or to supply the court.
Money lending was even done extensively by some of the backed expeditions.
The activities of artisans and traders were limited.
The former were low in status and were not paid enough for their labor.
The latter were so weak that they were not a distinct class.
The only people who counted for anything in Korean society were the aristocrats.
The classes were focused on their work.
Government functionaries were categorized as a separate social category.
The commoners, who were mostly peasants, were known as the "low born" and ranged from miners and artisans to servants and entertainers.
Buddhist festivals gave the common people hope for a better life in the afterlife.
The common people and the low born found their lot too much to bear and rose up against a ruling class that was more devoted to pursuing its own pleasures than to their well-being.
The Korean dynasty succeeded the ruling class.
They contributed to the downfall of the Silla and Koryo regimes and the reunification of the Koryo dynasty in the 13th century.
In the absence of real alternatives, the aristocratic families were able to survive and one of them was elevated to the throne.
It ruled Korea until 1910.
The Yi restored the dominance and links to China that had been lost under their predeces sors.
The Koreans were the only ones who were content to live in the shadow of the Middle Kingdom.
The preconquest culture of the Vietnamese gave them a sense of themselves that they didn't want to be overshadowed by China.
The basis for a Viets was provided by superior technology, modes of political rebellion, and ideas they received from China.
But their fear of losing their identity and becoming a part of China's massive civilization made them feel less grateful.
There was little Chinese presence after the initial raids.
Their language was not related to Chinese.
Chinese women have less freedom within the family and in society at large than their Vietnamese counterparts.
The map shows that the customs and cultural forms of Vietnam were very different from the original core of Vietnam.
The Vietnamese were dressed differently.
The southern province of the Chinese empire was ruled by women.
In the centuries when they were dominated by the rivals of the Vietnamese, they were able to preserve most of the features of their society.
At the grassroots level of Buddhism, the Mekong river delta region became much more attached to Buddhism, and they developed a drive to the south.
The Han rulers who succeeded the Qin tried to incorporate south China into their empire.
The Han emperor wanted the Viet ruler to acknowledge his status as a vassal.
The Han thought it was best to conquer the Viets and use Chinese officials to govern them.
The Red River area was garrisoned by Chinese troops and Chinese administrators were going to encourage the local lords to adopt Chinese culture.
The agents of the new regime cooperated with the elite because they realized that they had a lot to learn from their neighbors to the north.
The Chinese introduced essential elements of their own culture into the southern lands in order to get another barbarian people to join them.
After the Chinese conquest, the Han emperors and the shi developed a bureaucratic machine that they used to hold together the empire.
They attended Chinese-style schools, where they wrote in the Chinese script and read the classical Chinese texts.
The responsibilities and privileges of administrative posts were defined by Chinese precedents.
The introduction of Chinese techniques and irrigation technology made Vietnamese agriculture the most productive in southeast Asia.
Vietnam's society could support larger numbers of people like that of China.
The Red River valley and the lowland coastal areas to the south have high population densities.
The extended family model was adopted by the Vietnamese elite and they venerating their ancestors in the Confucian manner.
The Chinese had every reason to think that the barbarians were on their way to becoming civilized.
The revolts led by members of the Vietnamese aristocracy and the failure of Chinese cultural imports to make much of an impression on the Vietnamese peasantry frustrated Chinese hopes for assimilating the Viets.
The Chinese found it difficult to conceal their disdain for local customs in what they considered a backward and unhealthy outpost of the empire, which is why the Vietnamese lords chafed under their rule.
The less than reverent attitudes felt by Vietnamese aborators toward Chinese learning and culture can be found in Vietnamese literature.
I've been dropped like a root after failing my exams.
In Vietnamese writings, self-doubt and mockery turn to rage and a fierce determina tion to resist Chinese dominance.
This passage gives a sense of why the Chinese failed to integrate the Vietnamese.
They failed because the peasantry rallied again and again to the call of their own lords to drive off the aliens.
In contrast to Vietnam against Chinese rule, the stronger position of women in Vietnamese society is demonstrated by the frequent peasant rebellions in role as rebel leaders.
We don't know if this resentment played a part in the Trung sisters' decision to revolt.
Female authors wrote poetry in the 1700s and 1800s that gave no doubt about the reactions of Vietnamese women to male dominance.
Let your sister teach you to write poems.
Young bees are rubbed in flowers.
Young goats who have nothing to do with their horns butt each other.
One wife is covered by a blanket while the other is left in the cold.
This is the fate of sharing a husband.
The steamed rice is cold and tasteless, because you toil and endure to earn it.
It's like renting your services for a fee and then not being paid.
I would rather live alone than remain unmarried.
The Vietnamese struggle for independence was aided by the links that bound them to China, as well as a strong sense of identity and motives for resistance that crossed class and gender barriers.
The Chinese administrators responsible for supplying military expeditions to the far south had nightmare conditions due to great distances and mountain barriers.
Few of the Chinese who lived in the Red River area did so permanently.
Chinese control over the distant Vietnamese depended on the strength of the ruling dynasties in China.
The Vietnamese were able to take advantage of the turmoil in China to assert their independence.
After failing to completely free themselves on several occasions, they mounted a massive rebellion during the period of chaos in China after the fall of the Tang dynasty.
The Vietnam had won political independence from their northern neighbors.
The rulers of China tried to regain control, but both efforts ended in retreats.
The French conquered the land of the Vietnamese in the 19th century.
Chinese cultural exports played a central role in Vietnamese society despite the Chinese political hold being broken.
They ruled through a bureaucracy that was much smaller than the Chinese administrative system, with secretariats, six main ministries, and a bureau of censors.
An administrative elite schooled in the Confucian classics sought the emperor's favor and commanded deference from the common people when civil service exams were reintroduced.
The Chinese scholar-gentry enjoyed more power than the Vietnamese one.
Their control at the local level was not as secure as that of their Chinese counterparts.
Local Vietnam ese officials were more likely to identify with the peasantry than with the court and higher administrators.
They looked out for the interests of the peasants and served as leaders in village uprisings against the ruling dynasty when their demands became too oppressive.
Competition from well educated Buddhist monks limited the power of the scholar-bureaucrats in Vietnam.
Chinese taste and architectural styles influenced the construction and decoration of China, which meant that the Buddhists had of the Vietnamese court.
The patterned after the ones that Vietnam's envoys had seen in China.
Despite this imitation, high esteem in which women were held in Vietnamese rulers were more accessible to their subjects, and their palaces and capital city made little Buddhist teachings and institutions also impression on Chinese visitors.
The samurai of Japan and the Aztec warriors of Tenochtitlan embodied these ideals in their public persona and military enterprises, which at times were immortalized in songs, legends, and epics.
The illustrations show portraits of people from four different civilizations.
We can assume that the portraits capture the values, symbols of legitimacy, and demeanor that these people intended to project to the viewer because each of these portraits was produced by artists from the same society.
Carefully examine each of the portraits, paying special attention to clothing, poses adopted, objects included in the portraits, background selected, and activities depicted.
The relevant sections of Chapters 15, 16, 17, and 18 can be found here.
It was not possible for most Vietnamese dynasties to enjoy the authority of their Chinese counterparts.
The Chinese legacy gave the Vietnamese great advantages in the struggles within the region that became a major preoccupation of the independent Vietnamese rulers.
The Viet namese refused to move into the malarial highlands that surround the Red River area and rose abruptly from the coastal plains farther south.
The driver drove into the Map 18.4.
The successful peoples in the hills retaliated for raids on their villages by launching periodic expeditions.
They traded with the hill dwellers for forest products.
South along the narrow plain between the mountains and the sea was where the Vietnamese made good use of the larger population and superior bureaucratic and military organization that the Chinese connection had fostered.
From the 11th to the 18th century, they fought a long series of successful wars against the Chams, an Indian ized people living in the lowland areas along the coast.
Most of the Chams were driven into the highlands, where their descendants live to this day.
After defeating the Chams, the Vietnamese then clashed with the Khmers, who had begun to move into the Mekong Delta region during the centuries of the Vietnamese drive south.
The Chinese-modeled military forces and weapons of the Vietnam proved too much for Indianized armies.
By the time the French arrived in the area in the late 18th century, the Vietnamese had taken control of much of the upper delta and were pushing into territory that is now Cambodia.
Here was south and east Asia.
Chinese influences include lonely for her lord, and sick for home.
There is evidence in one of the passages of marvelous letters written in a very far-fetched epistolary style and significant exchanges between the satel ite of China.
A girl stood by.
You're still to bear the fortune of a rose, seem to me to get along well without much learning.
You have to bow to circumstance when evil strikes.
It was the work of a brush and had no scent.
The poet tells us that Kuei-fei's grace was that of She [Kieu] put aside all vows of love and troth.
She said to "Hands off-- a simpering Chinesified air."
The northerners ese dynasty that arose in southern came to see the Vietnamese who settled in Vietnam to challenge traditional frontier south as less energetic and slower in speech and movement.
Regional military commanders grew less and less kingdom centered on Red and slower in sending taxes to the court as the hold of the dynasty of Trinh in north at Hanoi weakened.
The capital of Hue was turned to the Mekong rivers.
The territories of the Nguyen were centered on the narrow plains that connected the rivals of the family in the south.
The capital of their country was located far north of the Mekong delta region.
The houses fought for the right to rule Vietnam for two centuries.
Neither accepted the division of Vietnam as permanent; they wanted to unite all of the people under a single monarch.
The long struggle absorbed a lot of the Vietnamese energy, but it also prevented them from seeing the growing threat to their homeland.
For the first time in history, the danger came not from the Chinese giant to the north but from a distant land and religion that the Vietnam knew nothing about.
The spread of ideas, organizational models, and the various combinations of Chinese-derived and indigenous material culture from a common Chinese center spawned the rise ments produced distinctive variations on a common pattern of civilized development in Japan, Korea, and lized life.
The period of direct Chinese rule in Korea was brief.
China's military power and presence in the lands of the nomadic peoples were all too apparent.
The Vietnam, where Chinese control lasted more than a spread of the Chinese pattern of civilized development, was essential to sedentary cultivation.
The struggle for political independence provided an ideal environment for the cultivation of wet rice, which gave way to a growing attachment to Chinese culture as a counter to the Indian influences that had brought civilization.
In Japan, where attempts by Chinese dynasties to assert direct ing and bureaucratic organization to religious teachings and art had failed, Chinese culture was emulated by the courtly elite.
That brought civilization to the islands in all three cases.
The rise of a rival Chinese imports, with the exception of popular Bud aristocratic class, which was based in the provinces and championed dhism, was all but monopolized by court and provincial elite military values that were opposed to Chinese Confu groups.
Chinese thought patterns and modes and the reassertion of Japanese traditional ways were in all three cases.
The Japanese political of social organization were cultivated by patterns, which made them different from the local elites in China, who knew that they were the key to a higher level of rule.
The transmission of Chinese civilization and the development of peoples in this far-flung region were judged by the standard of Buddhism, which was one of the great world religions.
The power of the Chinese model in India is one of the important results for Korea, Japan and to a large extent.
Contacts with other parts of the world were limited because there was no sense that any other place had culture before being passed on to Japan, Korea, and Vietnam.
Bud examples are worth emulating.
The intensity of interactions within the dhism gave a link between the east Asian region tendencies to be isolated from the rest of the world.
There are a lot of good works on early Japanese and Korean social history.
The section on the arts, religion, and literature of the era was written by E.Wagner.
The best works on the earliest period in the Document feature of this chapter are translations of the writings of a French scholar to get inside Japanese and Vietnamese culture.
The ways in which Japan, Korea, and 4 are compared.
Key elements of art and literature in East Vietnam interacted with China.
How much control did each civilization have?
What were the underlying differences that made these 6 unique?