The problems can be solved with a theory of electrolyte solutions.
Each positive ion in a solution is surrounded by a cluster of cations and surrounded by a shell.
The attraction or drag of the ion in the electric field reduces its mobility.
The magnitudes of colligative properties are reduced.
The type of calculations presented in Chapters 4 and 5 can be made with great accuracy.
If concentrations are used, no calculations involving solution properties are 100% accurate.
Activities are needed.
Chapter 13 introduced activities.
Their importance in chemical equilibrium will be discussed in more detail in Chapter 15.
The sand settles to the food bottom of the container in a mixture of sand and water.
The mixture can contain up to 40% industry.
Many foods are for a long time because of the mass of SiO2 and the dispersion of the silica in the colloids.
Much larger particles of silica are present, though they are still considerable research effort.
The particles are of the same size if the dimensions are less than 1 nm.
Even if the particles are visible under a microscope, they are ordinary, or macroscopic, size.
When light passes through a true solution, no light can be seen by an observer.
Light is dispersed in many directions and can be seen.
Dust particles in a flashlight beam scattering light.
The particles are spherical.
Thin films are similar to an oil slick on water.
The OH2 colloids are randomly coiled.
The particles have a negative charge.
The particles repel each other.
There is a charge on the particles.
Much larger particles do not adsorb on the surface of the semipermeable membrane, as suggested by Figure 14-28.
The process is more in the immediate vicinity when carried out in an electric field.
A human kidneys dialyzes blood, a colloidal mixture, to remove and the particle carries excess electrolytes produced by metabolism.
Certain diseases can cause a negative charge.
The fact that a machine outside of the body can function for the kidneys is illustrated here.
Synthetic gems, blue rock salt, and Ruby glass cannot pass through the black diamond of the membrane.
Sometimes it is necessary to make clay particles or other suspended materials in water purification.
The water is usually treated with an appropriate electrolyte.
Clay sols can be used to distribute pesticides and other organic substances in the environment.
Solid and liquid particles are suspended.
Sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and ozone are some of the components of smog.
The separation of complex mixtures, such as gasoline, can be accomplished using a technique known as chromatography.
There are many variations of the technique, but they all take advantage of differences in the way different compounds interact with a common material.
To find out more, you can go to the Focus On feature on the MasteringChemistry site.
The component is used to separate the volatile components of a solution.
The curves show the formation of azeotropes in the solution.
Dilute solutions contain at a constant temperature and produce vapor of the same relatively small amounts of solute and concentrated solu composition as the liquid; they have boiling points that in tions, large amounts.
The mass percent, volume percent, and rating of the two solutions of different concentration are expressed in the semipermeable membrane centrations.
mole fraction pressure to the more concentrated solution is the more important factor in determining molarity.
Section 14-6) is one such property.
It is possible to identify an osmotic pressure with this approach.
Most solutions are not ideal.
The freezing-point depression and boiling-point elevation are colligative properties of a solvent.
A solution with the maximum amount of practical applications.
There are certain conditions under which a solution can be pre stants.
The graphs of ligative properties of electrolyte solutions are more diffi solute than non electrolyte solutions.
The most familiar phenomena are related to gas.
It is possible to calculate the solution vapor ble for some unusual phenomena with the help ofoidal mixtures.
Liquid-vapor equilibrium curves showing either encountered in a broad range of contexts, from fluids solution vapor pressures to pollutants in large air mass points as a function of solution composition.
The molality of a solution is related to the freezing-point depression in Analyze Equation (14.5).
The boiling point of the solution can be determined using an equation.
128.2 g C 10H8>mol.
To find the boiling point of the solution is to first solve equation (14.5) for the molality of the solution.
The molality at the boiling point is the same as at C/Tb.
The mass of solution can be determined with four significant figures.
The freezing point of the solution can be established with good accuracy.
Only one part per hundred is valid for the freezing point depression.
The actual precision of the calculated quantities is still less than one part per hundred, despite the fact that significant-figure rules permit three significant figures in the remainder of the calculation.
The final estimate of the boiling point 180.63 degC2 seems reasonable since it required only two figures.
We assume that the 0.211 m solution is close enough to ideal in behavior to make the equations applicable.
Water and phenol are only partially miscible at temperatures below 66.8 degC.
A phase consisting of 92.50% water and 7.50% phenol is obtained in a mixture of 50.0 g water and 50.0 g phenol.
The water has a saturated solution of phenol in it.
At a constant temperature of 25.00 degC, a current of dry air was passed through pure water and then through a drying tube, D1, followed by passage through 1.00 m sucrose and another drying tube, D2.
There is a substance in the follow-up to the Vitamins C and E.
Some vitamins are water-soluble and some are fat-soluble.
1-butanol is fat.
Explain your reasoning by identifying which.
Would it hold 100 g H2O?
A brine has 3.81% NaCl by mass.
How many liters of solu is there?
You are asked to prepare a large amount of AgNO3.
A water sample has less chloro in it's solution than it does in the vol form.
In the same solution, how many grams of CHCl3 would be?
The density of water is 1.18 g> cm3 at 20 degrees.
The molarity of CO2 in a liter of ocean water is 75% H3PO4 by mass and has a density of 1.57 g>mL.
The ocean water has a density of 1027.
A solution prepared by dissolving 2.65 g C6H4Cl2 in a density of 1.209 g>mL is 34.0% H3PO4 by mass.
Refer to Figure 14-10 to determine the molality of unsaturated, or what mass of KClO4 can be crystal NH4Cl in a saturated solution at 40 degC.
One way to recrystallize a solute from a solution is by changing the temperature.
It is possible to evaporate 0.200 m.
A solution of 20.0 g KO4 in 500.0 g of water is prepared at a temperature of 40 degrees.
If the same time as the temperature is reduced from solution is supersaturated, then it is.
O2(g) is dissolved in 1.00 L H2O.
What will be Air has a volume of 9689 Ar.
The molarity equivalent to 87.8 mL CO2(g), measured at 0 degC and of O2 in an aqueous solution at equilibrium with air at 1.00 atm, per 100 mL of water, can be determined using data from Exercise 43.
The molarity of atmospheric pressure.
The volume percent of CO2 in water that is at 20 degC and saturated with air at O2 in air is 20%.
Methane and CH4 are the main components of natural gas.
When natural gas becomes saturated with air, assume that it's at 20 degC.
The mass of a gas is stated as Henry's law.
The amount of O2 in water is 14.2.
Henry's law states that a given quantity of liquid dissolved at 25 degC and 1.00 atm perature is expelled when water saturated with O2 is volume of gas at all pressures.
The water has a Vapor Pressure of 23.8mmHg.
The two solutions pictured are the same substance.
The temperature and density of methanol are similar.
Styrene, used in the manufacture of polystyrene plas tics, is made by the removal of hydrogen atoms from ethylbenzene.
The mixture is separated by water.
The vapor pressure of ethylbenzene is 182mmHg and that of styrene is 134mmHg.
The vapor pressure is 62.0 mol % C6H6.
A orates from solution is a benzene-toluene solution.
The boiling pure toluene at 98.6 degC is 533mmHg.
A 20% solution by mass of blood pressure should be verified.
The flowers are dying because of what approximate pressure is required.
The basis of these phenomena is explained.
The mass of hemoglobin is 104 U.
A 0.50 g sample of polyisobutylene (a poly mer used in synthetic rubber) in 100.0 mL of benzene 14.0 g glycerol in 17.2 g sucrose in solution has an osmotic pressure that supports a 55.2 mL solution.
Adding 1.00 g of benzene, C6H6, to 80.00 g cyclohexane, point of 75.22 g benzene from 5.53 to 4.92 degC.
The boiling point of water is 99.60 degrees.
A compound is composed of 42.9% C, 2.4% H, 16.7% N, and 38.1% 100.068 degC.
Cooks often add salt to the water.
Some people say it helps the cooking process by freezing the point at which it starts.
The molec is raising the boiling point of water.
The water-soluble vitamins are important in difference.
The must be added to a liter of water at 1 atm pressure if you have a deficiency in this vitamins.
This is a typical with 59.0% C, 5.0% H, 22.9% N, and 13.1% O.