The WaiS-iV is an intelligence test that consists of verbal and performance items.
There are examples of items on the WaiS-iV.
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A psychological test is like a three-legged stool, if one leg is missing or broken, it collapses.
The psychological tests have three legs that represent the essential elements for their effective and appropriate use: reliability, validity, and standardiza tion.
The principles apply to all psychological tests, whether they are designed to measure intelligence or personality.
A psychological test is not worth much if it results in inconsistent results.
You might be happy to know that your bathroom scale shows you have lost 12 pounds.
Learning disabilities can be revealed by the information from an intelligence test.
If the scale were a psychological test, it would be necessary to identify a child's areas measure.
Several approaches are used to determine whether a test is reliable.
They can measure the similarity in the scores obtained on the two occasions using a correlation coefficients.
The test is reliable if the scores on the two forms are the same.
If the correlation coefficients are.80 or higher, a psychological test has good reliability.
The reliability of the test is determined by the developers and Wechsler intelligence tests.
We need to know if the test is valid before we use it.
A psychological test can be reliable, but only if it is valid.
An unreliable test can't be valid.
If we asked people to write down the names of the Seven Dwarfs, we could measure anxiety levels.
The written reports might be reliable, but they wouldn't have been reliable if it weren't for anxiety.
Reliability does not guarantee validity.
The purpose for which the test was designed and the type of test they use varies.
If you can demonstrate that the test reflects the course content, validity can be established.
When a test is used to predict whether someone will succeed in a particular task or job, the test should be high.
The weather is one way psychologists establish test validity.
The development of procedures "ums" and "ahs" during the speech, ability to maintain eye contact with the audience, and administering psychological and several other behaviors.
Establishing the validity of intelligence tests is not a simple task.
A large sample of people ratings of students fall between.40 and.60 in correlation with the distribution of scores obtained.
Ordinary problems have little relation to the knowledge or skills acquired in school.
Intelligence tests can be controversial.
The instructions, time limits, and scoring procedures have to be the same every time.
The development of norms is an important part of test standardization.
Maybe you compared your score with a friend's.
You were looking for information to help you understand your score by comparing it to others.
The frame of reference is what we need to inter pret scores on a test.
Form a and B are the two forms of the test that measure test anxiety.
The curve has been useful to psychologists 98% of the time.
Less often, scores further away from the mean occur.
A certain percentage of the population has Symmetrical bell-shaped distribution height, weight, anxiety, and intelligence.
A majority of people get scores near the middle of the distribution of test scores.
The average height of an American is 66.5 inches.
Most adults are close to the average height of 86 inches.
The av erage score is set at 100 and measures of intelligence fit this distribution.
Many biological and psychological variables are distributed in the population according to the bell-shaped curve.
In the large middle section of the bell-shaped curve, about two-thirds of Americans have IQs between 85 and 115.
Mental retarda tion can begin before the age of 18.
Brain damage from automobile accidents or other forms of trauma can cause deficits after age 18.
Provisions for educating all children with handicaps are included in Public Law 94-142.
The law brought attention to the needs of handicapped children.
Chapter eIGht is about sensory disabilities, communication disorders, and intellectual disabilities.
Some of the major egories of exceptional individuals are listed in Table 8.
Children who are perceived to be exceptional are often evaluated using standard intelligence tests.
Because there are many forms of exceptionality, psychologists have developed other assessment instruments.
Observation of classroom behaviors by teachers is an important part of the assessment of behavior disorders.
There is no standard approach to dealing with the needs of exceptional children.
There are interventions that are appropriate for children with mental retardation but not those that are appropriate for children with verbal and physical aggression.
He used wax type of educational settings for his children because he was legally required to educate them with students who do not have disabilities and in the most normal blind.
The study of people who became affectionately known as "Termites" enabled film was viewed by Dustin Hoffman to put to rest some myths about gifted people.
They did better academically, and there are some works of art that you can view at www.wawro.net.
They had more interests.
They read more books.
As adults, they were better adjusted.
They were better at learning.
A group of mentally disabled children were described in an 1886 lecture.
Some savants can report dates from hundreds of years ago even though they have low scores on intelligence tests.
Most cases of savant syndrome involve remarkable memory with little understanding of what is being described.
Tom, a blind boy, had a vocabulary of less than 100 words.
He could play thousands of musical pieces from memory.
He was a player for the president of the United States.
Tom was asked to listen to two unfamiliar musical pieces, 13 and 20 ability in a specific area, and he played them perfectly from memory.
The categories represent deviations from the average in some aspect of intellectual functioning.
Many children who are identified as falling into one of these categories of exceptionality receive some form of special education.
Intelligence tests specially developed for use with certain populations, such as the deafness, are often used to collect information that is helpful in identifying cases of exceptionality.
These talents are not assessed by intel igence tests.
It is difficult to determine the prevalence of gifted and talented people.
The rare syndrome tends to occur more often among males.
Approximately 1 in 2,000 people with brain damage or mental retardation have savants, and about 1 in 10 people with autism.
It's a rare mental disorder that begins during infancy or early childhood.
It is characterized by failure to respond to people in socially appropriate ways, by serious deficits in speech, language, and communication, and by abnormal relation ships to objects and events.
Some researchers believe that there is a link between savant skills and autism.
Evidence suggests that people with savant syndrome have suffered damage to the left hemisphere, which results in some form of compensation by the right hemisphere.
The right hemisphere is associated with all of the abilities exhibited by people with this syndrome.
The brain and intelligence are studied by psychologists and other scientists.
No model of brain func tion will be complete until it can explain the rare condition.
Although the cause of savant syndrome is a mystery, its existence makes us rethink the concept of general intelligence.
Intelligence is an ability to acquire knowledge, to reason, and to solve problems.
The concept of intelligence is credited to Sir Francis Galton.
He might be considered a lumper.
Most of the intelligence tests that were developed after his work yield a single number, which may lead us to oversimplify the nature of intelligence.
Intelligence is seen as a collection of abilities that reflect a variety of strengths and weaknesses.
There are several theories suggesting that there is more than one type of intel ligence.
People who do well on one type of intelligence task tend to do well on most other tasks, even though their scores on these tasks are not always the same.
He proposed that the tasks reflect both types of intelligence.
Specific intelligence is related to the particular task and is responsible for the fact that each person does better on some tasks than others.
There is no universal agreement on the definition of intelligence and how it should be measured.
Any single number on an intelligence test will not provide an adequate account of a person's ability.
According to Stephen Ceci, intelligence is not singular.
Success in life outside of school may have little to do with the kind of intelligence rewarded in school.
Robert believes that there are several ways to be effective.
The public understands and values the third type of intelligence, but it is not included in standard intelligence tests.
Most intelligence tests place a premium on speed, which is not relevant in most decisions.
Poor, minority, and migrant children are more likely to be discriminated against by this hurried approach to testing.
The triarchic theory of intelligence is the basis of efforts to match instruction to the strengths students exhibit in analytical, creative, or practical intelligence.
These efforts are still in the early stages of development and hold promise for students' success.
Students receive instruction that emphasizes their strength after their strengths are assessed.
The focus of the evaluation is consistent with the component of the model emphasized in the course.
The tests were designed to predict academic achievement.
They might be different if they had been developed by artists, salespeople, or politicians.
There is more to intelligence than the current intelligence tests show.
Intelligence may be manifest in different ways by each person's strengths and weaknesses.
In poets, lawyers, speakers, writers, and rap singers, mastery, love, and ability to use language and words are found.
It is possible to hear, recognize, and manipulate patterns in music.
Sensitivity to pitch and tone is evident in composers, singers, and musicians.
It is possible to detect patterns, think logically, and carry out mathematical operations.
In science and mathematics, it's used in solving mathematics problems and in logical thinking.
The ability to represent the spatial world is likely to be found in pilots, navigators, sculptors, architects, and championship chess players.
The ability to use and control parts of the body is found in dancers, surgeons, athletes, and craftspeople.
Sensitivity to people, ability to understand what motivates them, and ability to recognize their intentions, understanding how to work effectively with people, and how to lead and to follow, may be found in people involved in sales, teaching, counseling, or politics.
Understanding one's emotions and being able to draw on them to guide one's behavior to understand oneself and use that information to regulate one's own life.
Questions about life, death, and ultimate realities can be posed.
Sensitivity to other features of the natural world and ability to discriminate among living things are two things that can be experienced.
Our past as hunters, gatherers, and farmers is likely to be found in roles such as chef, and landscaper.
Chapter eIGht howard gardner suggests that there is more to intelligence than just scores on tests.
People can manifest intelligence in many different ways.
Anyone who has watched Oprah Winfrey's show knows her high level of intelligence.
The characteristics of movement are exhibited by these soccer players.
The band is known for their music.
For example, you can think creatively, when appropriate, and give examples practically in a particular domain.
You can write a poem, analyze a work of howard literature, or discuss the relevance of a gardner's multiple intelligences.
People's scores on tests of verbal and mathematical ability should not be the sole factor used to evaluate them.
The current intelligence tests have been at the center of controversy.
The conclusion that assessments based on intelligence tests are always accurate should not be based on high reliability coefficients.
When the scores are applied without a full understanding of their meaning, it can lead to abuse.
The misuse of psychological testing is shown in the following examples.
We learned earlier in the chapter that Galton believed that intelligence was mined by heredity.
If more intelligent citizens were allowed to have children, the general intelligence of the nation could be increased.
More than 60,000 mentally ill, retarded, and disabled people were sterilized without their consent in the early and mid-20th century.
Intelligence test scores were used to prevent some European immigrants from entering the United States.
The foreign arrivals lacked the tests of the U.S. culture.
Percentage of differences among people to look at a geometric figure and then use a pencil to copy it on paper.
A group of people in a characteristic item seems easy to us, but many of the immigrants had never seen intelligence that is believed to be pencil.
The results were used to classify some immigrants as feebleminded.
In the 20th century, the people responsible for testing immigrants' intelligence believed that the test scores reflected the operation of heredity.
The question of how heredity and environment determine intelligence has been wrongly assumed to be one factor alone.
The heritability of a characteristic is not influenced by inherited factors.
Inherited factors are responsible for that characteristic when it is 100% in the 20th century.
Most estimates of heritability of understanding influence intelligence are in the range of 50% to 60% of environmental conditions on test scores.
There is a chance that in the near future breakthrough will occur in the identification of genes responsible for general cognitive ability, as a result of research identifying the specific genes responsible for a number of forms of mental re tardation, reading disability, and late-onset Alzheimer's disease.
Evidence shows that genetic factors can affect intelligence in older people.
Heritability estimates are not constant across the lifespan; rather, they change with age ranges.
Researchers were interested in twins who were 80 years of age or older and able to take part in a 1.5 hour testing period, because they found a sample of twins from the Swedish Twin Registry.
The heritability of general cognitive ability was quite high.
The increase in heritability is due to the fact that the environment plays a major role in intellectual development as young children, so even a child with a genetic predisposition for high intelligence might perform poorly on an intelligence test if he has been raised in an impoverished environment.
As we grow into adults, the environment becomes less of an influence on our intellectual development and our genetic predispositions become a bigger factor on how well we will perform on an IQ test.
Environmental factors can affect heritable characteristics.
The brain and nervous system are damaged when undigested phenylalanine accumulates in the body.
The IQ scores of people with PKU who are not treated are often below 50.
A baby can be diagnosed with PKU with a diagnostic test shortly after birth.
Babies with PKU are put on a diet that is low in phenyl alanine.
The special diet should be continued through the adolescent years.
The majority of treatment centers in the United States and Canada recommend that people with PKU continue their restricted diet throughout their lives.
PKU can be changed by changing the environment.
heredity isn't necessarily destiny.
PKU doesn't tell us much about how heredity affects intelligence in most people.
Write down your answer before you read it.
Researchers estimate the degree to which intelligence is affected by inherited factors by examining correlations between intelligence test scores of family members.
Intelligence scores in families should be correlated.
The study of twins can be used to investigate the influence of heredity and environment on intelligence.
Half of their genes are in common, but they were only born together.
Twins who have lower correlations.
The statistics show that there are influences on intelligence that come from two different sperm.
No plausible alternative to genetic influence exists to explain the genetically related as siblings IQ similarity in monozygotic twins reared apart.
The correlation between test scores and environment is due to the fact that family members share similar environments.
When twins are raised in different environments, the correlation between their scores is still high.
It's not clear whether heredity or environment has an influence on intelligence.
Researchers studied the intelligence test scores of adopted children to understand the effects of similar environments and heredity.
Table 8-7 shows the cor relation between the scores of adoptive parents and their adopted children.
The intelligence scores of adopted children tend to correlate more with their biological parents than with their adoptive parents.
The IQ of the biological parent is a better predictor of a child's IQ than the IQ of the adoptive parent.
Studies show that the environment plays a role in intelligence even though heredity is important.
We don't like a number of the environmental influences.
Intelligence can be affected by a variety of factors.
Exposure to lead is linked to intellectual deficits.
In Taiwan, children who had been exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls had small but visible intellectual deficits that did not decrease with age.
In the 1930s, Howard Skeels decided that tender loving care and stimulation could be beneficial for two children in an Iowa orphanage.
Skeels placed the sisters in a home for mentally retarded adolescents.
He was surprised to see that the intelligence test scores had increased and that they were alert and active.
The attention and stimulation provided by the mentally retarded adolescents and the staff of the institution made a difference.
Skeels was encouraged to give a similar level of stimulation for a larger group of children.
Evidence showed that early stimulation could affect intelligence.
Performance on IQ tests has risen slowly since the 1930s.
The increase in IQ scores has been found in industrialized countries as well as developing countries.
The average number of correct responses in samples from 20 countries has gone up in the last 50 years.
The effect may be due to environmental factors, such as improved education, or it may be the result of a glitch in the tests.
The average test score has not changed even though perfor mance has improved.
IQ scores are not an absolute measure, they are compared with everyone else's scores.
As the raw scores improve, the standard on which the IQ scores are based also increases.
Your relative score won't change much if everyone else is improving.
A raw score of 100 in the 1930s would have been equal to an IQ of 85 by the end of the last century.
For almost 30 years, the idea that birth order is related to intelligence scores has been the subject of articles and advice from professionals and non professionals.
"Dumber by the Dozen" was one of the provocative arti cles.
"Studies have shown that children reared in small families are brighter, more creative, and more vigorous than those from large families," said Dr. Joyce Brothers in her answer to a mother of four who asked if she should consider having another baby.
Let's look at it.
The model says that birth order, family size, and child spacing affect intellectual development in children.
Evidence shows that average IQ declines with birth order.
The average fifth-born child had a lower IQ than the average third-born child.
The pattern was clear.
The relation was reported by Joseph Lee Rodgers and his colleagues.
All first-born, then all second-born, then all third-born children, and so on are taken from the sample and average intelligence scores of each group.
Some recommend keeping families small because of the declining intelligence score with birth order.
The data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth was used by Rodgers and his col leagues to look at the data within families of a given size.
The results show that the belief that large families make low-IQ children is not true.
"Parents with lower IQs in the modern United States have larger families and have been for some time" (Rodgers et al., 2000, p. 610).
Birth order can be used to compare across families, but it can also be used to confound variables.
The decline in intelligence with birth order is due to the fact that lower-IQ parents have larger families and these families differ from the rest of the population in variables that are correlated with intelligence.
There are many good reasons for parents to limit their family sizes.
The belief that a larger family will lead to children with lower IQs appears to be wrong.
Write down your answer before you read it.
A close look at the correlations in Table 8-7 led some researchers to conclude that both heredity and environment strongly influence the development of intelligence.
The correlation between the intelligence scores of unrelated children should reflect their lack of family relationships if heredity controls intelligence.
There is a correlation between the intelligence test scores of unrelated children.
There are correlations for identical twins raised apart and together.
Environmental factors have an effect on intelligence.
Researchers assume that the twins are treated the same in most studies of intelligence.
Twins and siblings in general are not treated the same as before.
They have found that siblings tend to grow up in environments that are different from each other.
The non-shared environment plays a major role in accounting for differences among siblings in intelligence and personality.
Twins aged 80 years and older have the same intelligence scores.
The study found a high esti heritability.
The non-shared environment accounted for 27% of the differences in intelligence among older people.
Differences in environment can affect intelligence in old age.
The intelligence testing controversy continues.
There are differences in the average intelligence scores attained by members of different racial and ethnic groups.
The average intelligence scores obtained by African Americans are lower than those of white Americans.
There is a high degree of overlap in the distribution of intelligence scores for all groups.
Although individual differences in intelligence are due in part to heredity, the existence of group differences in IQ scores does not necessarily suggest that there are people who are smarter than average.
Measures of intelligence can be impacted by family size and other variables.
Characteristics that are affected by heredity can be affected by environmental factors.
The plants that grow in barren soil will be shorter on average than the plants that grow in fertile soil, if we take a bag of seeds and sow half in fertile soil and the other half in barren soil.
If seeds are planted in barren soil, they are not likely to grow to their full potential.
The average difference between the two groups may be due to environmental factors, such as the quality of the soil, but the differences among the plants within each group may be due to heredity.
IQ scores can reflect environmental factors such as academic background, quality of education, and the availability of resources such as books and educational toys.
Critics of intelligence tests argue that we need to take a closer look at the tests themselves.
Intelligence tests can predict the performance of children in school.
Group differences in test scores might be related to the tests themselves.
Intelligence tests are biased against members of other cultural groups because they reflect white, middle-class values.
The tests are written in standard English.
Some test questions assume that the basic social unit is the nuclear family, which consists of a mother, a father, and their children.
The groups that have a high rate of nonnuclear families are placed at a disadvan tage to answer the questions.