Philippe Pinel argued in 1793 that treatments should be based on what works to reduce psychopathology.
Pinel ended physical punishment by removing patients from their chains.
Pinel's approach gained a foothold in Europe.
Dorothea Dix was a teacher in Massachusetts.
The method did not reduce the symptoms of psychopathology.
There are no quick fixes for psychological disorders.
Some treatments work better than others.
Treatments help reduce symptoms so people can function well in their daily lives.
The approach includes a continuous cycle of assessment, diagnosis, and treatment.
In the following study units, you will learn how certain treatments may be able to reduce the symptoms of certain disorders.
The hospital was opened in its own words.
Understand psychodynamic therapy by explaining its main goal and naming Bedlam, which has come to mean uproar and describing the two main techniques used in psychoanalysis.
Explain the main goal and hospital of therapy.
The two main techniques used in client-centered therapy are explained by James Norris.
The laws to treat patients in asylums were changed because of his treatment.
Psychotherapy is the name for any formal psychological treatment aimed at changing thoughts and behavior.
All forms of psychotherapy involve interactions between the practitioners and their clients.
These interactions help clients understand their symptoms and problems as well as provide solutions for those symptoms and problems.
Therapy can change clients' thought patterns, feelings, and/or behavior.
The methods used to bring about change can be vastly different.
More than 400 approaches to treatment are available according to one researcher.
Various techniques seem appropriate for the client.
Table 15.1 summarizes the most common psychotherapy treatments that have been used over the past century.
Many people who need treatment for psychological disorders don't seek it because a therapist works with clients to help them.
It's more likely that you know someone who won't seek treatment.
Help clients replace punishments and not seek treatment.
Cognitive therapy can be eliminated by personal or cultural beliefs.
They might feel humiliated by the treatment.
Group therapy is often used to improve social skills and cost- mix of psychotherapy vices.
It may take a long time for approaches to get services.
Family relationships can be healed with a mix of therapy.
Sigmund Freud was one of the first people to develop treatments for psychological disorders.
The method was based on the idea that psychological disorders were caused by prior experiences, especially early traumatic experiences, that created unconscious conflicts in the people with the disorders.
Freud's treatment involved the identification of unconscious con flicts.
He believed that they were created by feelings and drives.
In free association, the client would say whatever came to mind and the therapist would look for signs of unconscious conflicts.
The therapist would use dream analysis to understand the client's dreams.
The client would lie on a couch while the therapist sat out of view.
The method was meant to allow freer access to unconscious thought processes.
The goal of psychoanalysis is to increase clients' awareness of their own unconscious psychological processes and how they affect daily functioning.
Clients were thought to have been freed from unconscious influences by gaining this insight.
As a result of addressing unconscious conflicts, clients' symptoms should be reduced.
Freud's ideas were revised by a number of therapists.
These developments are known as psycho dynamic therapy.
The psychodynamic approach is used by a therapist to help clients examine their unconscious needs.
Freud sat behind his talking as part of the treatment process.
The use of a desk in psychodynamic therapy has become controversial over the past few decades.
The dynamic therapy is expensive and time- consuming, sometimes continuing for many couch, facing away from him.
Psycho free association, dream analysis, and other techniques were used by Freud to help treat psychological disorders.
The chance to talk about your problems with someone who listens will help them gain insight about how their unconscious processes are important for any type of therapy.
People learn to understand where a therapist works with clients to themselves and their goals and supports them in fulfilling their potential for personal help them develop their full potential.
Carl Rogers developed this approach.
People are encouraged to fulfill their potential for personal growth through therapy.
When clients gain insight into their problems, they can become the best people they can be.
A safe and comforting setting for clients to access their true feelings is a key aspect of client centered therapy.
The relationship between therapist and client is an important factor in achieving this goal.
Hope can be provided by a good relationship.
The therapist doesn't pass judgement on the clients' behavior.
The therapist helps the clients focus on their subjective expe right.
The importance of a safe and comforting strictly is demonstrated by the relatively few practitioners who follow the principles of the theory therapy session.
Many practitioners use techniques advocated by Rogers in order to establish a good therapeutic relationship between therapist and environment.
Write your own explanations of bold and italic terms.
Operant conditioning is a form of behavior therapy.
Trying to change a client's behavior is one of the most successful therapies.
The therapies are behavioral, cognitive, or a combi can snap a rubber band on his finger.
When he performs this behavior, psychodynamic therapies consider the wrist to be maladaptive.
The small punishment will decrease the behavior.
The therapist targets the client's thoughts and behaviors to help them overcome fear.
Classical and operant conditioning can be used to replace maladaptive behaviors with adaptive ones.
Operant conditioning is the basis of behavior modification.
It is a method of helping people to change their behavior.
Reinforcements include small treats or praise.
Unwanted behaviors are ignored or punished.
These systems allow people to earn and trade token for good behavior.
A person's likelihood of engaging in a desired behavior is increased by this technique.
The client must show the desired behavior for it to be rewarded.
A client with particular difficulties can learn how to act in certain situations.
The therapist does an appropriate behavior here.
People learn many behaviors by watching others do them.
In modeling, the client is encouraged to imitate displayed behavior, rehearse it in therapy, and later use the learned behavior in real- world situations.
The successful use of newly acquired social skills is rewarding and encourages the continued use of those skills.
According to the theory of cognitive therapy, distorted thoughts can cause maladaptive behaviors and emotions.
There is a proposal for treatment for psychological disorders.
Through where a therapist works with clients, a clinician tries to help them change distorted thought patterns.
Cognitive Therapy helps change clients' faulty cognitives by training them to engage in new behaviors.
A therapist can use cognitive restructuring to help a client.
The therapist will encourage the clients to examine other people's reac replace distorted thought patterns with tions to them and understand how they might be wrong about how other people are more realistic.
The therapist will teach the clients how to change their behavior.
The most widely used version of therapy is called CBT.
It is one of the most effective therapies for anxiety disorders and depression.
For a primer on comorbidity, see Newby, McKinnon, Kuyken, Gilbody, and Dalgleish, 2015).
Write your own explanations of bold and italic terms.
Group therapy, family therapy, and culture affect therapy.
Some people seek treatment for symptoms that are interfering with their lives.
Some people want to be able to overcome feelings of social anxiety that keep them lonely.
Some people are sent to treatment for their behavior because it may upset other people.
People's unique circumstances affect their symptoms.
Treatments differ depending on family involvement, client resources, and the cultures in which the people need treatment live.
Therapists need to be sensitive to the cultural meanings of disorders and how they are viewed in other cultures.
Many people needed therapy in the 20th century because of stress related to World War II.
The treatment for psychological dis orders became popular.
Group therapy has advantages over individual and behavior therapy when it comes to correct faulty therapy.
Cost is the most obvious benefit.
Group therapy can be less expensive than solo therapy.
It is available to more people because it is less expensive.
The group setting gives people the chance to improve their social skills and learn from each other's experiences.
Some practitioners believe that the ideal number of clients for a group therapy is eight.
Many groups are organized around a particular type of problem, such as sexual abuse, or a particular type of client, such as people who are trans.
Many groups continue over long periods, with some members leaving and others joining at various intervals.
The group may be structured depending on the therapist's preferred approach.
It might be more organized to encourage discussion.
Family Therapy Heals Relationships are very structured.
They have specific goals and techniques that can be used to modify the behavior of a person with a psychological disorder.
This group is part of a larger context.
To see the symptoms of disorders such as obsessive-compulsive disorder.
The social person within at least part of that support that group members can provide each other is one of the most helpful aspects context, many practitioners take a systems approach to treatment and of this type of therapy.
Family members might be in therapy with someone who is experiencing similar issues.
Therapy is an important part of treatment for a psychological disorder.
Family therapy tries to include all family members in the process of therapy, because the client's family plays an equally important role.
The whole system will be affected by a change in individual behavior.
It is easy to see this effect within a family.
Each person in a family plays a specific role and interacts with other members in different ways.
The way the individual thinks, behaves, and interacts with others may change over the course of therapy.
Family dynamics can be affected by such changes.
An alcoholic who gives up drinking may start to criticize other family members when they drink again.
The family members might not provide as much support for the client to avoid alcohol.
If the family members don't have drinking problems, they might not resent being criticized.
They might be annoyed by the comments if they have drinking problems.
Family therapy aims to heal the problems for the entire family.
Different cultures have differing views on how to treat psychological disorders.
The symptoms of a psychological disorder may be different from culture to culture.
The way these symptoms are used in diagnosis and treatment will be different in different cultures.
Culture has many influences on the way psychological disorders are expressed, on which people with psychological disorders are likely to recover, and on people's willingness to seek help.
In different countries, therapy is accepted at different levels.
China and India have relatively few therapists.
Many of these countries are seeing a need as the last two decades or so of economic expansion have brought increasingly stressed lifestyles and an awareness of the mental health problems that come with them.
People in some countries are resistant to discussing psychological problems and less likely to treat them.
In India, terms such as mental illness, depression, and anxiety are avoided because of the stigma of psychological disorders.
Providers need to be sensitive to the cultural meanings of disorders and how psychological treatments are viewed in those cultures.
A psychologist counsels a young victim of the massive earthquake in China.
Write your own explanations of bold and italic terms.