You will be able to outline the criteria used by the courts to determine if and when the law can treat people differently after you've read this chapter.
Different paths to equality are taken by different racial and ethnic groups.
Women have fought for equality and the changing role of women in American politics.
Some groups face discrimination.
There are tools citizens use to expand the promise of civil rights.
What's at stake.
There was a lot of excitement at the American Renaissance conference in Tennessee.
Richard Spencer is the chair of the National Policy Institute, a white nationalist organization.
"If Trump loses, he's already shown that immigration and economic nationalism and the whole concept of 'America first' works electorally," said Peter Brimelow, the founder of an anti-immigration and white nationalist web site.
Rosie Gray calls it "white supremacy perfectly tailored for our times: 4chan-esque racist rhetoric combined with a tinge of Silicon Valley-flavored philosophizing, all riding on the coattails of the Trump boom."
White Americans lose some of the advantages that come with discrimination against other groups when there is more equality.
Donald Trump's "Make America Great Again" appealed to older, less educated, and less wealthy Republican voters, who are at risk of losing their status due to demographic trends.
Members of the white supremacist movement were convinced that Donald Trump was their guy even though the Donald Trump campaign refused to comment.
The most prominent member of the birther movement was Trump, who claimed that Obama's presidency was illegitimate if he didn't produce his birth certificate.
His comments on immigrants being rapists, Jews being focused on making money, Muslims being dangerous, fat pigs, or dogs, and disgusting animals have encouraged their bigotry.
He referred to U.S. senator Elizabeth Warren as "Pocahontas", his dispute with a Gold Star family about their Muslim son's sacrifice, and his "America First" slogan.
Many people who were appealed to by Trump felt liberated.
Before the election of Donald Trump, the white supremacist movement was largely hidden from the public, hidden in the shadows of their own, secretive information channels.
They gathered in out-of-the-way places because they knew their ideas were not in line with mainstream America.
They felt that mainstream society was censoring their views because their views were considered politically incorrect.
Things changed because of Trump's popularity.
As anti-white hatred increases, they will be ready for the Ku Klux Klan.
A man affiliated with the white supremacists drove his car into a crowd, killing a woman, during the Unite the Right rally in Virginia in August of last year.
There was bigotry on both sides, but Trump refused to condemn the white supremacists.
Rapid changes across America caused the anger that Trump tapped into.
The groups the white nationalists dislike are slowly becoming the majority, even as they themselves become a smaller and smaller percentage of the American population.
The rub may be therein.
The avowed white nationalists were not the majority of Trump's supporters.
The majority of his base is made up of white Americans, mostly rural males without college educations, who would never think of themselves as racists, because they compete for a dwindling share of the American Dream.
Even before he became the widely accepted candidate of a Republican Party that didn't quite know what to do with him, Trump was speaking to the concerns of a gradually shrinking white population who felt that their jobs were being given to immigrants who worked too cheaply.
These words appeared on hats, on T-shirts, and as the basis of chants at rallies where they were filmed and shown on cable TV.
When white male culture was most dominant, it's almost a cultural nostalgia.
When women, African American and Hispanic voters hear that.
The frustration and despair of the white, blue-collar, working class is not a symptom of a real problem.
One researcher says that the highest costs of being poor in the U.S. are.
They were less healthy and dying younger, and of causes such as suicide, drug overdose, and alcoholism.10 Studies by political scientists disagreed on whether you could predict these early Trump supporters by their attitudes toward authoritarianism.
One political scientist wrote that Trump's core of support in the primaries was among Republicans who held unfavorable views of African Americans, Muslims, immigrants and minority groups.
The perception that whites are treated unfairly in the United States and that the country's growing diversity is a bad thing were associated with Trump in the primaries.
13 Race is a permanent thread in American politics.
Today it confronted some facts.
The racial landscape is changing in ways that are irreversible.
Whites are a diminishing racial group in the United States, as people of color are growing in numbers.
There is no easy or affordable way to bring back nearly eleven million immigrants who live and work in the United States.
Muslims are integrated into communities throughout the country.
The fact is that a black man was elected to the White House and served two terms, although the elected Republican government immediately began to dismantle his legacy.