The summed electri cal potentials between different positions on the body are recorded in an ECG.
The wave of electric current initiated by the SA node can be monitored by placing the following events body.
The first heart sound and the ejection of blood can be heard in this wave.
This procedure works because the body fluids that surround the heart conduct electricity.
The topic is the cardiac cycle of the heart.
When the two atria are completely depolarized, the P wave begins.
There are electrical and mechanical events that must open the valves.
When the branches of the heart's chambers must precede mechanical ones, the QRS wave begins.
You know what happens to the first heart ventricles.
The ventricular contraction is followed by the QRS complex.
As diastole begins again, this causes ventricular relaxation.
The semilunar valves are opened by the increasing pressure of the QRS complex.
There are fires in the T wave SA.
Blood is pumped through a closed circulatory system when electrical impulses are detected on the skin.
There is a recording of them.
An overview of the organization of blood vessels as a blood indicator of cardiac health is provided by the resultant waveform.
The ventricular wave flows in a closed system.
The blood is pumped by the heart complex.
The larger the ventricles, the more electrical will be generated to the smallest arteries, which are called arterioles.
Arterioles bring blood to the smallest vessels.
Overview of blood flow through vessels in a closed layer in the aorta and large arteries recoil to their original state.
The recoiling has been omitted for simplicity.
The force helps prevent the blood pressure from going down too much.
The arteries carry blood away from the heart.
The thick-walled vessels are made of smooth layers.
Changing the diameter of arterioles is how the adjustment of blood flow muscle and connective tissue is accomplished.
They widen the inner layer of cells.
The blood in inactive regions is in contact with the endothelium.
Blood vessels are not drawn to scale.
There are differences in the thickness and composition of the walls.
The capillary has a diameter of 7 um.
Oxygen diffuses illary in animals.
If the fluid that leaves a capillary were to remain in the inter tissue cells, the volume of blood would decrease and activities would increase.
The fluid leaves the cells and into the blood.
Interstitial fluid is not included for simplicity.
Living described in Chapter 52 is a fundamental principle of biology.
As you read the rest of the chapter, keep this principle in mind.
When blood travels through capillaries, it picks up any substances essential for homeostatic processes in animals, in part because oxygen is required for the producy of the cells of the body.
The small, thin-walled extensions of capillaries are called the ATP.
The energy required to sustain processes empty into veins that return blood to the heart is provided by the venules.
The walls of veins are part of the body.
If valves weren't present, direction was the only thing left.
This causes blood to flow in and force it to go towards the heart.
The pressure of the blood is very low when it reaches the veins.
The sympathetic resistance's neurons release transmitters in a mathematical way.
The compression of the veins helps force blood back to normal flow.
The return of cardiac output on blood pressure is aided by the activity of skeletal muscles.
One-way valves inside veins allow blood to flow.
The animal's body has differences in resistance that make it difficult for the valves to open.
When a leg vein is considered on a local level, as in an exercising muscle, compressed by the mechanisms just mentioned, the blood forces or on a systemic level, as in the resistance the heart must overcome to open the valves and blood moves in one direction, it can be considered.
In this section, we will look at vein is relaxed, the valves close again, preventing blood from the relationship among blood pressure, blood flow, and resistance.
The veins are stated by Poiseuille's law when the arms are held down by the sides.
The Marie Louis Poiseuille is a French physician.
The bulging veins quickly lose blood and become less visible.
When gravity works in its favor, blood flows through a blood vessel.
arteriolar radius and resistance are not linear.
The values are based on average body mass and resting conditions.
Estimates of stroke volumes to the fourth power of vessel radius and an increase in radius by a factor are based on heart size.
The Etruscan shrew is one of the smallest mammals.
If we know the stroke volume of a heart and carbon dioxide, lactic acid, and other substances, we can determine the heart rate.
Simply put, CO is equivalent to HR.
They are decreasing their resistance to blood flow.
The CO of a blue whale is of resistance, which allows more blood flow to the active region, 100 L/beat x 10 beats/min, which is 1,000 L/min.
arteriolar radius can be regulated by hormones that are produced throughout the body.
The CO of a blue whale is greater than that of a dog or a shrew.
The heart of a shrew is the size of a small pea, whereas the heart of a blue whale is areas such as the heart and skeletal muscles.
The arteriolar smooth muscle is contraction or relaxation caused by signals from the autonomic nervous system.
As mammals get effect, the heart rate is similar to what is described for hormones.
The volume of blood ejected with each beat forcefully enough to overcome the resistance of the whole beats is enormous, so the heart must times per minute.
Small animals have faster heart rates.
The higher the cardiac output and resistance to blood flow, the higher the blood pressure will be.
We have a garden hose that is connected to the arteries and a faucet that is connected to the heart.
Blood exerts in the arteries of a closed circulatory system if the faucet is fully open.
The blood pressure will be represented by the water pressure.