Philip II ruled the kingdom of Macedonia on the northern border of Greece.
Philip used his wealth and army to win control of the northern Aegean.
The Greek city-states fell to an invader because they couldn't put their disagreements aside.
Philip united the Greek states with his Macedonian kingdom in order to liberate the Ionian Greeks from Persian rule.
Philip fell to an assassin's dagger before he could start his crusade.
Alexander led an army of Macedonians and Greeks into western Asia.
He took Egypt from the Persians without a fight.
He ordered the construction of a new city where the Nile and Mediterranean meet.
Alexandria would be the largest city in the world within a century.
Alexander was proclaimed the legitimate ruler of Egypt after honoring the priestly class.
He burned the buildings of Xerxes, the invader of Greece during the Per sian War, in revenge for taking the principal Persian capital of Persepolis.
After four years of fighting, his soldiers crossed the river into India.
The exhausted troops refused to go further.
Alexander turned south to the Arabian Sea.
He died in Babylon in 323 b.c.e.
and never saw Macedonia again.
He created an empire that stretched from Macedonia to India in thirteen years.
Alexander changed the face of politics in the eastern Mediterranean.
The Persian Empire had ruled the East for over two years.
He established a Macedonian monarchy after his death.
Alexander's empire was torn apart by a civil war after several of the Macedonian generals tried to become sole ruler.
The most successful generals carved out their own smaller monarchies.
The Ptolemies assumed the powers and position of pharaohs after Ptolemy seized Egypt.
Alexander's campaign was swift and extensive.
His founding of Hellenistic cities was more important than the success of his military campaigns.
The map shows Greek colonization in the Hellenic period.
The majority of Alexander's empire was won by Seleucus, his monarchy stretching from western Asia to India.
Alexander used ruler cults that already existed in Egypt to encourage disobedience.
This created a symbol of unity within kingdoms that ruled different peoples who at first had little in common; however, kingdoms never won the deep emotional loyalty that Greeks had once felt for the polis.
The external trappings of a polis, such as a council or an assembly of citizens, were not power for the cities.
The city had to obey royal orders.
The rulers relied on paid professionals to staff their bureaucracy and on trained, paid, full-time soldiers to fight their wars.
The spread of Greek ideas and traditions across a wide area was Alexander's most important legacy.
Alexander settled Greek and Macedonian troops in new cities he founded as he moved further eastward.
More than 250 new cities were founded in North Africa, West and Central Asia, and southeastern Europe after his death.
The cities and colonies became powerful in struments due to the spread of Hel enism and the merging of Greek and other cultures.
Since the days of the Mesopotamians, there has been no comparable spread of cultures in this area.
The city was both a cultural and economic center when it was established.
The ruling dynasties of the Hellenistic world were Mace donian in origin, and Greeks and Macedonians initialy important political, mili tary, and diplomatic positions.
Greek became the common spoken language of the eastern Mediterranean as the prevailing institutions and laws were Greek.
A new Greek dialect called the koine became the spoken language of the royal court, bureaucracy, and army.
Everyone who wanted to find an official position or compete in business had to learn it.
As early as the third century b.c.e., those who did gained an avenue of social mobility.
The political benefits of citizenship were less than they had been in the past.
The benefits natives gave to Hellenistic society were considerable.
Their traditions are entwined with Greek traditions to create an energetic and dynamic culture.
The kingdoms were never completely unified in language, customs, and thought.
Greek culture did not extend far from the cities.
People in the countryside did not embrace the aspects of Hel enism that urban residents did.
In eras of cultural change, the spread of Greek culture was wider than it was deep, a very common pat tern all over the world.