Important contributions were made to the theory by the man.
In this test, a doctor takes a small sample of cells from the patient's uterus and sends it to a medical lab to be stained and examined for any changes that could indicate cancer or a bug.
A cytotechnologist is a professional who studies cells via laboratory tests.
They are trained to determine which cellular changes are normal and which are abnormal.
Their focus is not limited to one area.
They study cells from all organs.
They consult a medical doctor when they notice a problem with their body tissue and fluids.
People's lives are saved by the work of tyotechnologists.
The chances of a successful outcome increase when a patient's treatment begins sooner.
The cells are from a Pap smear.
There are normal cells on the left.
The cells on the right have the human papillomaviruses.
The cells are larger.
Two of the cells have two nuclei instead of the normal number.
You can do the following by the end of this section: Name examples of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, and describe the relative sizes of different cells.
The mostly single-celled organismsbacteria and Archaea are prokaryotes.
Eukaryotes include animal cells, plants, fungi, and protists.
All cells have the same four components: 1) a plasma membrane, an outer covering that separates the cell's interior from its surrounding environment; 2) a cytoplasm, which is the cell's genetic material; and 3) DNA, the cell's genetic material.
Prokaryotes and cells differ in several ways.
This is different in the eukaryotes.
The structure of a prokaryotic cell is shown in this figure.
All prokaryotes have a nucleus, ribosomes, and a cell wall.
Some of the structures are present in some of thebacteria.
The peptidoglycan cell wall and polysaccharide capsule are found in most prokaryotes.
The cell wall helps the cell maintain its shape and prevents dehydration.
The cell can attach to surfaces in its environment with the help of the capsule.
flagella, pili, and fimbriae are some of the prokaryotes that have flagella.
The flagella are used for walking.
The fimbriae attach to the cell.
The best way to prevent the spread of illnesses is to wash your hands.
Microbial are ubiquitous because they can only be seen with microscopes.
They live on many surfaces.
If someone sneezes into his hand and you touch the same door, the germs from the sneezer's mucus will be on your hands.
Microbes can enter your body if you touch your hands to your mouth, nose, or eyes.
Most of the microbes are beneficial.
Beer and wine can be made with the help of the microbes in your gut.
Scientists who study microbes are called microbiologists.
There are a number of careers for microbiologists.
They work in the food industry, as well as in the veterinary and medical fields.
They can work in the pharmaceutical sector by identifying new antibiotic sources that can treat infections.
Environmental microbiologists may look for new ways to use specially selected or genetically engineered microbes to remove pollutants from soil, as well as hazardous elements from contaminated sites.
We call them bioremediation technologies.
Microbiologists can provide insight and knowledge for designing, developing, and specificity of computer models ofbacterial epidemics.
Prokaryotic cells are smaller than eukaryotic cells, which have diameters ranging from 10 to 100mm.
The small size of the prokaryotes allows them to quickly diffuse to other parts of the cell.
Any waste produced in a prokaryotic cell can quickly diffuse.
This is not the case in eukaryotic cells, which have adapted to enhance transport.
Each unit of increase in a logarithmic scale represents a 10-fold increase in the quantity measured.
Small size is necessary for all cells.
We will look at the area and volume of a cell.
Not all cells are spherical in shape.
The formula for the surface area of a sphere is 4pr2, while the formula for its volume is 4pr3/3.
As the square of the cell's radius increases, its surface area increases, but its volume decreases.
As a cell increases in size, its surface area-tovolume ratio decreases.
If the cell had a cube shape, this principle would apply.
If the cell grows too large, there will not be enough surface area to support the increased volume.
As a cell grows, it becomes less efficient.
One way to become more efficient is to divide.
Other ways to increase surface area include folding the cell membrane, becoming flat or thin, and developing organelles that perform specific tasks.
These changes lead to the development of more sophisticated cells.
The surface area-to-volume ratio is affected by the cell's size.
A cell will divide or die if there is not enough surface area to support it.
The cell on the left has a volume of 1mm3 and a surface area of 6mm2, whereas the cell on the right has a volume of 8mm3 and a surface area of 24mm2.
eukaryotic cells are larger than prokaryotic cells.