AP students are expected to investigate important people, developments, and events from 1200 to the present, as well as to demonstrate historical thinking skills: analyzing primary and secondary sources, developing historical arguments, and making connections across time periods and geographical regions.
We need to first look at the various belief systems and philosophies that span both continents and millennia and that have impacted history in ways both big and small.
Many people, places, and events will be discussed in this book.
The College Board refers to these as illustrative examples.
You don't have to memorize all of the historical patterns, processes, and themes that they show on the exam.
The AP exam primarily tests your critical thinking skills and ability to reason like a historian, because world history is about big ideas, like how various civilizations developed and how different regions of the world are connected.
Shinto is a religion in Japan.
The early Japanese people believed in the existence of spirits.
The Shinto religion was formed by these beliefs.
Japanese emperors claimed to descend from the sun goddess Amaterasu, and people built shrines to honor kami.
Hinduism is a belief system that evolved over time, but it can't be linked to a specific time or person.
South Asia has a wide variety of beliefs and practices that are referred to as Hinduism.
Hinduism is often described as a way of life.
Hindus believe they have a dharma to perform in life.
The world works well if everyone follows their dharma.
The natural order can fall out of sync if it is violated.
The dharma is determined by birth and stage in life.
karma will be the result if one follows his or her dharma.
Good karma allows someone to move up in the level of s amsara in their next life.
Hinduism is a polytheistic religion that believes in a number of gods, including the creator god, Brahma.
Bhakti is a practice in which people have a personal devotion to a deity.
Hindus believe they will be reborn after death.
The new position they assume in the next life will be dependent on how well they performed their dharma in the past.
Hindus want to end the cycle of reincarnation by reaching moksha, or oneness with the universe.
Siddhartha Gautama was the founder of Buddhism.
He was raised as a prince in Nepal.
The prince became known as the Buddha after meditating under a tree.
The Buddha's decision to teach what he had learned to others helped transform his ideas into a world religion.
All life is suffering.
It is caused by desire.
There is a way out of suffering.
The Eightfold Path is the way out of suffering.
The ultimate goal for Buddhists is the release from the cycles of reincarnation and the achievement of union with the universe.
The central ideas of Hinduism, such as dharma, karma, and s amsara, were altered significantly by Buddhism.
According to Buddhism, people don't need rituals, gods and goddesses aren't necessary, and everyone can find enlightenment on their own.
The caste system in India is challenged by this belief.
According to some, Laozi founded the school of thought around the same time as Confucius.
All life is interdependent, and human beings should be in harmony with nature.
The advice is to relax and be in harmony.
The concept of wu wei means act by not acting, which was taught by the Daoists in order to solve the problems of the day.
Problems will solve themselves if you do nothing.
It is useless to build institutions to govern men because institutions that reward knowledge are dangerous.
Competition ensues and eventually to fighting.
The ideal state is a small town that is self-sufficient.
The ultimate goal should be to cultivate the virtues of patience, selflessness, and concern for all.
In Chinese society, Daoism provided a counterpoint to the proper behavior of Confucianism; it encouraged people to relax and just let things happen.
It allowed the Chinese to be Confucian at work while not at work.
The war should only be used for defensive purposes.
The Great Wall was used by the Han Chinese to maintain the safety of trade routes.
His two most important concepts were appropriate feelings and correct actions, which must be used together in order to have any effect.
filial piety was a key concept.
The most influential philosophy in China was Confucianism, which spread to Korea and Japan.
Order would be achieved if people knew their roles and relationships.
Rulers would follow a moral example.
Those superior to them would teach people how to behave well.
The five key relationships are ruler and ruled, father and son, husband and wife, older brother and younger brother and friends.
The ninth century saw the development of a new form of Confucianism called Neo-Confucianism.
It rejected mysticism in favor of a rationalist approach.
Some concepts and principles from Buddhism were reworked.
From the late Tang Dynasty until the twentieth century, Neo-Confucianism dominated Chinese philosophy, and it spread to Japan, Vietnam, and Korea.
The Late Bronze Age collapse was a violent societal collapse that took place between 1200 and 1150 B.C.E.
The cities in the region were all destroyed in a short period of time.
The eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea has a broken city-state system.
The remnants of this system were incorporated into the cultures of the neighbors.
The speakers of the ancient Hebrew language lived in the south Levant, in settlements next to the city-states.
The ancestors of the Hebrews are believed to be Abraham, who they believe was called by God to found a new nation.
Although the Assyrians, Babylonians, and Romans conquered the Hebrews occasionally, they maintained their cultural identity through their religion, Judaism.
Large military campaigns suppressed the uprisings against the Romans in 66 and 135.
The holiest temple of the Jews was destroyed.
The Jews were driven out of their homeland by the Romans in 135.
The Jews are scattered in the Diaspora.
There were scattered communities in the Mediterranean region, Persia and Central Asia.
The name YHWH is considered too holy a word to say out loud.
The Torah states that the Hebrews are God's chosen people.
They entered into a covenant with God and were forbidden from worshiping any other god.
There is a prohibition against murder, adultery, or theft.
The monotheistic tradition claims that there is only one creator who made the world and all life.
Christianity and Islam were influenced by Judaism as a monotheistic religion.
Christianity believes that Jesus was born to Jewish parents between 6 and 4 B.C.E.
Jesus preached a simple message of love and compassion because he was concerned with the growing cosmopolitan nature of Jewish society.
Jesus has the power to perform miracles, such as healing the sick and raising the dead, according to Christian tradition.
Jesus said that everyone was equal and that the faithful would experience eternal life in heaven.
The lower classes, slaves, and women were attracted to these ideas.
In order to quell a potential rebellion, the Roman authorities had Jesus executed by crucifixion around the year 30.
The followers believed that Jesus was the son of God.
The New Testament was compiled of writings about his life and his messages.
Christianity spread across the Roman Empire and the world.
Christianity has been affected by several schisms.
The Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church don't like each other over religious practices such as the worship of idols.
The pope and the patriarch were excommunicated in 1054 in what became known as the East-West Schism.
The Eastern Roman form of Christianity was originally a core part of the Empire.
The publication of Martin Luther's Ninety-five Theses in 1517 started Protestantism.
Chapter 8 will discuss its development and characteristics.
Prior to the introduction of Islam, inhabitants of the Arabian Peninsula lived in nomadic tribes.
Arabs moved their products between the Mediterranean Sea and the Indian Ocean.
Although patriarchy dominated Arabian social structures, women were allowed to inherit property, initiate divorce agreements, and participate in business dealings.
Most Arabs practiced a polytheistic form of religion, which included a principal god, Allah, although idol worship of lesser deities was commonplace as Allah was viewed as a remote figure.
The coming of Muhammad changed this.
Muhammad was born in Mecca and married a merchant widow.
They traveled on caravans and met a lot of people.
Muslims believe that Gabriel told Muhammad that he was going to be Allah's messenger.
All people were supposed to submit to Allah, according to Muhammad.
Those who submitted to Allah would go to a heavenly paradise, while those who didn't would go to a fiery hell.
He said that he was the last of a long line of prophets from the Jewish and Christian scriptures.
Muhammad and his followers migrated to Medina in 622 after their message was not received well in Mecca.
In Medina, Muhammad was seen as a prophet and a political leader.
After organizing his new religion, he and his followers returned to Mecca and captured the city.
Muhammad's revelations were written down by his followers in the Quran, which is believed to be the actual words of God.
Much of Arabia was under Islamic rule by the time of Muhammad's death.
Muslims disagreed over who Muhammad's successor should be.
The Shi'a believed that the Muslim leader should be a descendant of Muhammad.
The Sunni believed that the wisest member of the strongest tribe should succeed Muhammad.
Although Muhammad's father-in-law Abu Bakr was chosen to be the first caliph, the split between Shi'a and Sunni Muslims led to religious and political divisions in the Muslim world.
Pray five times a day.
Give money to the poor.
If you can, make a pilgrimage to Mecca during your lifetime.
Islam promises salvation to everyone who believes and follows its principles.
The Quran gave women equal status to men before God and allowed wives to keep their dowries, which appealed to women.
The Quran allowed inheritance to be limited to male offspring.
Women's social experiences were restricted in order to protect the legitimacy of offspring.
Islam appealed to the poor and powerless and fostered a strong sense of camaraderie.
In order to provide context for how cultural beliefs have shaped historical developments, this section has touched upon major religions in world history.
Beginning with an overview of early civilizations, the following sections will go into more detail about post- 1200 history.
Even though the focus of AP World History: Modern is on years 1200 to the present, there are times when discussing pre- 1200 context is necessary.