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35.3 Respiration and Human Health -- Part 1
If the respiratory disorders are mainly caused by allergies, infections, a genetic defect, or toxin exposure, then they should be classified.
The human respiratory tract is constantly exposed to environmental air, which may contain infectious agents, allergens, tobacco smoke, or other toxins.
The respiratory tract is susceptible to a number of diseases.
The upper respiratory tract includes the nose, mouth, and throat.
Because the upper part of the respiratory tract filters out many pathogens and other materials that may be present in the air, it is often affected by a variety of infections.
Most "colds" are relatively mild viral infections of the upper respiratory tract characterized by sneezing, rhinitis, and perhaps a mild fever.
Vaccines are difficult to develop since we don't have immunity to the next strain of the viruses that cause the cold.
penicillin is useless in treating colds.
The tonsillar area has symptoms such as sore throat, high fever, and white patches.
Adults and children both experience about half as many sore throats as do each other.
Some strep infections can lead to more serious conditions, such as scarlet fever, if they are not treated.
The white blood cells are fighting the infection and there are patches of white blood cells.
The diseases and disorders shown here are caused by exposure to infectious pathogens and polluted air.
One of the most obvious and life-threatening disorders that can affect the trachea is choking.
The best way for a person without medical training to help someone who is choking is to grab the person around the waist from behind and use their hands to push the airway open.
Trained medical personnel can quickly insert a breathing tube if this fails.
Allergic reactions and damage from environmental toxins are some of the causes of acute bronchitis.
5% of the U.S. is estimated to be.
It can be treated with antibiotics, or it can progress to more serious conditions.
The bronchi undergoes changes over time, including the loss of cilia.
Infections are more likely to occur under these conditions.
Smoking and exposure to airborne toxins are the most common causes of chronic bronchitis.
Dust, cigarette smoke, and animal dander are some of the irritants that the airways are sensitive to.
Cold air or exercise can cause irritation.
A narrowing of the diameter of the airways is caused by inflammation in the airways and the contraction of smooth muscle lining their walls.
The incidence of asthma in American children has been increasing since the early 1980s according to estimates.
A more sedentary lifestyle, exposure to indoor toxins, and less frequent exposure to beneficial microbes are possible explanations.
It is possible to have asthma.
Inhalers can help dilate the bronchi and prevent inflammation.
Hundreds of millions of people worldwide are affected by various diseases of the lung, which cause about 400,000 deaths per year in the United States.
Treatments for lung disease include antibiotics, supplemental oxygen, and anti-Inflammatory drugs.
There aren't enough donor lungs to meet the need for a lung transplant for patients with serious lung conditions who have exhausted all other treatment options.
Recent advances in artificial lung technology are described in the Nature of Science feature.
People with a suppressed immune system, as well as the very young, the very old, and people with severalbacteria can cause pneumonia.
The kidneys are relatively easy to transplant from one well-matched individual to another with a high rate of success.
Lungs are more difficult to transplant, with a 5-year survival rate of over 50%.
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is a type of artificial lung that is frequently used in premature infants.
The baby's blood is pumped from the body to an external device.
The function of a natural lung is mimicked by the exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen.
The device allows the infant's cardiovascular system time to respond to medical treatment.
The right ventricle is where the BioLung is attached.
Blood leaving the ventricle passes over microfibers that exchange carbon dioxide and oxygen.
The lungs are bypassed by the return of the oxygenated blood to the left atrium.
The BioLung is a small device that is powered by the heartbeat.
Until a lung transplant is available, artificial lungs can be used.
Tuberculosis was a major killer in the United States before the middle of the twentieth century.
The United States had less than 10,000 cases in 2013), the lowest number ever recorded, but infections remain high in certain ethnic groups and among foreign-born persons.
The cells build a protective capsule around the organisms, isolating them from the rest of the body.
A tubercle is a tiny capsule.
The organisms can escape and spread if the resistance of the body is high.
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