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Chapter 18: Endocrine System
The endocrine system is related to psychology.
The hormones that are produced in this system affect many different processes in the body.
The brain controls the endocrine system.
Some parts of the process are relevant to psychologists.
The rest of the body prepares for fight or flight by releasing adrenaline from the adrenal glands.
The part of our nervous system that controls heart rate and blood pressure was mentioned earlier.
Our sex hormones are produced by women's and men's testes.
Research shows that levels of hormones in men and women are related to gender differences.
There are examples of these differences in the chapter "Developmental Psychology".
Genetics is one of the biological factors that affects human thought and behavior.
The environment where we grow up and live has an effect on our genetic code.
Researchers are trying to figure out how much nature and nurture contributes to human characteristics.
Human cells have 46 chromosomes in 23 pairs.
The chromosomes are made up of genetic material.
Some human genes are controlled by certain segments of DNA.
These segments are called genes.
Genes can be dominant or not.
The trait will be expressed if we inherit two genes for it.
The dominant trait is expressed in any combination of genes.
Different combinations of genes create different physical and behavioral tendencies.
Researchers study monozygotic twins since they share all the same genetic material and they want to examine the influence of genes on human traits.
More than 100 identical twins were given up for adoption and raised in different families, according to a famous study.
The study looked at the influence of genetics and the environment on hundreds of traits.
The study found a correlation coefficients of 0.69 on the IQ test for identical twins raised apart and 0.88 for identical twins living together.
The environment has an effect on IQ score since twins raised in the same family have more similar IQs.
The IQs of twins raised apart are correlated, showing that IQ is influenced by genetics.
Twin studies like this one have been criticized.
Twins raised in different families have the same physical appearance.
The psychological environment for both twins may be the same as a result of this physical similarity.
The similarity in environment might explain the high correlations.
Our gender is determined by our chromosomes.
Men and women have different X and Y chromosomes.
A boy or girl are usually the result of an X chromosomes contribution by a man.
A chromosomal abnormality can be caused by chromosomes combining in an unusual way.
Babies with Turner's syndrome are born with a single X chromosomes in the spot usually occupied by the twenty-third pair.
Differences in physical sexual development are caused by Turner's syndrome.
Babies with an XXY pattern are born with Klinefelter's syndrome.
Extreme introversion and minimal sexual development are usually caused by this syndrome.
Mental retardation may be caused by other chromosomal abnormality.
Down syndrome is the most common type.
Babies with Down syndrome are born with an extra chromosome.
A rounded face, shorter fingers and toes, slanted eyes, and some degree of mental retardation are indicative of Down syndrome.
Five suggested answers or completions are followed by each of the questions or incomplete statements.
Pick the one that is the best.
You feel like you are losing control over your muscles after eating some bad sushi.
Prozac is used to treat mood disorders.
The connection between certain environmental stimuli and brain processes is being investigated by Dr. Dahab.
A 39-year-old male has been brought into your neurology clinic by his wife.
Over the last four months, she has become more alarmed by her husband's behavior.
There are tumors in the brain that should be looked for with a CAT Scan.
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