The Jesuits claimed possession of the land on both sides of the Mississippi in 1673, as far south as Arkansas.
Robert de La Salle traveled the Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico in 1682, opening the way for the French to take over Louisiana.
England and France took control of a number of important islands in the Caribbean Sea in the first decades of the 17th century.
The Portuguese brought sugar plantations to Brazil.
The Caribbean plan tations are the most lucrative of all colonial possessions due to the quick repayment of sugar and slaves in the West Indies.
The Dutch were pipped to a role in the Americas by the Portuguese in the Indian Ocean.
The Dutch West India Company was founded in 1621 during the war with Spain and was able to open trade with North and South America.
The west coast of Africa was taken over by the Dutch in the slave trade.
Dutch attempts to colonize North America were not as successful as they could have been.
The English easily captured the colony of New Netherland due to lack of settlement and weak governance.
The mercantilist view of economics was shared by European powers in the 17th century.
The restored monarchy of Charles II extended the laws in 1660 and 1663.
The acts required most goods imported into England and Scotland to be carried on British-owned ships or on ships of England and its colonies.
British merchants and ship owners had a monopoly on trade with British colonies.
The navigation acts were a form of warfare.
The Dutch were far ahead of the English in foreign trade in the mid-seventeenth century.
Between 1652 and 1674, three Anglo-Dutch wars damaged Dutch shipping and commerce.
The Netherlands was falling behind England in a number of areas by the late 17th century.
France was England's most serious rival after that.
France is home to a population three or four times that of England and is rich in natural resources.
The War of the Spanish Succession tilted the balance in favor of England.
The Peace of Utrecht forced France to give up its holdings in Newfoundland, Nova Scotia and the Hudson Bay territory.
Britain was given control of the West African slave trade by Spain and was allowed to send one ship of merchandise into the Spanish colonies annually.
Britain was primed to take a leading role in the growing trade of the Atlantic in the 18th century.
Many factors helped shape life in European colonies, including locations of settlements, indigenous cultures and practices, as well as the cultural attitudes and official policies of the European colonizers.
The painting was number six in a series of sixteen images by the painter Jose de Alcibar, each showing a different racial and ethnic combination.
The first explorers formed unions with native women through force or consent, and relied on them as guides in the formation of al iances with indigenous powers.
The presence or absence of European women influenced the charac ter of each colony.
New settlements took on European languages, religion, and ways of life, as they did in the British colonies and the Span ish mainland colonies.
European women did not accompany male settlers on the west coast of Africa and most European outposts in Asia, but local populations retained their own cultures to which male Europeans acclimatized themselves.
Most women who crossed the Atlantic were Africans, who constituted four-fifths of the female newcomers before 1800.
There was a difficult passage between two centuries of growth in Europe.
On the other side were the religious enthusiasm and unrest of the sixteenth century, as well as overseas discoveries, rising populations, and vigorous commerce.
The eighteenth century's renewed population growth, economic development, and cultural flourishing were stretched on the other side.
The first half of the 17th century was marked by the spread of religious and dynastic warfare that resulted in death and widespread suffering.
Crop failure, famine, and epidemic disease contributed to a stagnant economy.
The survival of the European monarchies established in the Renaissance appeared to be in doubt in the middle decades of the 17th century.
Maintaining sta bility was of paramount importance to European rulers as order was re-established in the second half of the century.
Many nations were ruled by monarchs who proclaimed their absolute and God-given authority.
Local elites had to cooperate in order to assume such power.
Political compromises were forged from decades of conflict.
As Spain's power waned, other European nations sought their own profits and glory from overseas empires.
Conflicts over territories and trade in the colonies would be included in war among European powers.
The expansion of European power in the world was made possible by European rulers' increased control over their own subjects.
Power politics were thrown into question in the 18th century by the new Enlightenment ideals of inquiry and self-confidence.
In the next chapter, the movements that would have long- lasting influence worldwide are explored.
By the end of the eighteenth century, demands for real popular sovereignty, colonial self-rule, and slave emancipation enged the very bases of order that were so painful in the seventeenth century.