ChAPTER 32 -- Part 4: Russia and Japan: Industrialization
British, German, and French industrialists are leading.
Russia became a debtor nation because of huge industrial development loans.
Russia was ranked fourth in the world in steel production and second in the world in refining, behind the United States.
Russian textile output was very good.
Russian economic lags were starting to yield.
The industrial revolution was still in its infancy.
Russia's world rank was more of a function of its size and population than of mechanization.
Russian factories were not up to Western standards, and the labor force was not highly trained.
Peasants, often uneducated, had neither capital nor motives to change their ways.
Other reforms produced ambiguous results.
Russia was a traditional peasant society.
Discipline and military efficiency were not up to par.
The absence of a large, self-confident middle class was obvious.
They were not as assertive as their Western counterparts.
Alexander II's reforms, as well as economic change and the greater population mobility it involved, encouraged minority nationalities to make demands of the great empire.
Intellectuals looked at the cultural traditions of Ukrainians.
Nationalist beliefs were imported from western Europe, but here and elsewhere in eastern Europe, they encouraged divisive minority beliefs that multinational states, such as Russia and Austria-Hungary, found very hard to handle.
Nationalist pressures were not the main problem in Russia, but they did cause concern because of Russia's insistence on the distinctive superiorities of a Russian tradition.
Social protest was heightened by industrialization and the limitations of reform.
The peasant uprisings were caused by recurrent famines.
Peasants burned the records that indicated what they owed and deeply resented redemption payments.
Many educated Russians clamored for revolutionary change, along with the rest of the population.
Two strands were developed.
Many business and professional people argued for liberal reforms such as greater freedom in the schools and the press, even though they were not very aggressive.
A Russian term for articulate intellectuals became more active.
Russian universities expanded, student groups grew, and many were impatient with Russia's articulate intellectuals as a class, slow development, and visible restrictions on political activity.
Some 19th-century group of women students were bent on radical role in the protest current, and some of their demands were feminist.
Intellectuals toned down their goals as they entered the bureaucracy.
Some of the principles that had roused intellectuals in the West went deeper in Russia.
It was the first example of a kind of intellectual radicalism, capable of motivating terrorism, that would be seen in other societies during the 20th century.
The Russian intelligentsia wanted political freedom and deep social reform while maintaining a Russian culture that was different from the West.
The task they set themselves was to build a new society that would not reproduce the injustices and limitations of the Western world.
Although abolition of all formal government was not new in the West, it took on particular force in Russia in opposition to tsar formed in many parts of europe.
In the late 19th and early 20th century, a host of upper-class radicals fanned out to teach the peasantry the beauty of political 20th century activism, as early as the 1860s.
Failure here led to the formation of the first russia, opposing tsarist autocracy large terrorist movement in the modern world.
assassinations and bombings were the only way to attack the existing order because of the lack of popular support.
General destruction was the only real goal of the anarchist leader.
Alexander hoped for a peasant revolution.
There was no way to plan what would come next after tearing down the current framework.
The tsarist regime's resolve to avoid further political change was strengthened by the recurrent waves of terrorism.
Alexander II was worried that change was getting out of hand and was pulling back from reform.
Many dissidents were sent to Siberia after they were arrested for protesting.
Alexander II was assassinated by a terrorist bomb after a series of failed attempts.
His successors continued to oppose further political reform while increasing the effort to industrialize.
To gain the support of upper-class conserva tives, new measures of oppression were directed against minority nationalities.
The groups were watched carefully.
People such as Ukrainians were forced to learn the Russian language.
There were many pogroms and seizures of property as a result of the increased persecution of the large Jewish minority.