You identify important criteria and determine how well each alternative complies with them.
If you have to choose between taking a psychology course and a course in another topic, you should do so.
Another form of thinking is problem solving.
When there is a gap between where you are and where you want to be, you have a problem.
You can solve the problem by moving from your present state to your desired goal state.
If you decide to enroll in the psychology class but it conflicts with another course in your schedule, you have a problem that you must solve by dropping the conflicting class.
The study unit explores how thinking about information is related to decision making.
Complete the learning goal activities to maximize your learning.
Write your own explanations of bold and italic terms.
Understand the three main biases in decision making by explaining in your own words how they can lead to faulty decision making.
Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman worked to find out how people make decisions.
They looked at why people's decisions are not based on perfect logic.
Many decisions are made using processes that speed up the decision making.
The decision maker takes less time to consider all the possible pros and cons.
The 2002 Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences was awarded to Kahneman.
Consider a decision every day.
Imagine if you have a round pool and you want a cover.
One way to answer this question is to think about the area of the pool's opening.
You could use the radius of the pool to calculate pi.
This formula is used to calculate the area of a circle.
The correct result will always be given by the algorithm.
The opening of the pool is the area you're looking to find.
The pool may be small, medium, or large.
This approach isn't completely rational and isn't guaranteed to produce the correct result.
The type of guideline used to reduce the amount of thinking leads you to make "rule of thumb" decisions that are generally fine.
When you use a rule of thumb as an informal way to make a decision, you are using what is known as a heuristic.
You may not even be aware of it.
Heterogeneity is useful because it requires minimal cognitive resources.
You can focus on other things.
Sometimes survival depends on quick decisions that don't require weighing all the evidence.
The availability, representativeness, and affective heuristics are used most in your daily life.
You tend to rely on information that is easy to remember.
If you live in an agricultural area, you would probably say farmers.
librarians said if you live in an urban area Most people think of librarians and farmers when they think of this question.
They assume it is the larger category if they can retrieve many more instances in one category.
Most industrialized countries have more farmers than librarians.
People who live in cities and suburbs don't meet many farmers, so they think there are more librarians.
Say thatHelena is intelligent, ambitious, and scientifically minded.
She likes to work on mathematical puzzles, talk with other people, and read.
Most people would guess thatHelena is a cognitive psychologist because her characteristics better match their prototype of psychologists.
If you don't take other information into account, you can end up with faulty reasoning.
The base rate for postal workers is higher than for cognitive psychologists because there are more postal workers.
Sandy damaged parts of New Jersey.
Tourists decided to vacation elsewhere because most people remembered the news footage.
Atlantic City launched an advertising campaign to show that the casinos were open for business after the boardwalk was repaired.
Tourists stopped relying on their outdated heuristic after that.
If you're familiar with Mayim Bialik's work on television, you should place her in the category of actress.
You might be surprised to know that she holds a PhD in neuroscience.
Fans of winning teams are more happy than fans of losing teams one week later.
She is more likely to be a postal worker.
The way that information is presented affects how it is perceived.
The decisions may be influenced byHelena's traits.
People tend to do things they think will make them happy, while avoiding things they think will make them regret them.
People are poor at predicting how they will feel in the future.
People underestimate how happy they will be for positive events, such as getting married, having children, or having their candidate win an election.
They underestimate negative events such as losing a job, being diagnosed with a serious medical illness, and breaking up with a romantic partner, which will affect them in the future.
People tend to make decisions based on assumptions about their future emotions that may be incorrect.
According to Tversky and Kahneman, biases may lead to errors.
The belief is that a high price equals high quality.
Many consumers believe that "fancy" soaps are superior, despite laboratory studies showing that one type of soap is basically as good as any other.
We can't be aware of everything we rely on.
We can be aware of some of the frequently used ones.
We can use more caution as we seek to make rational decisions if we know that we can make faulty judgements.
If you are completely rational in your decisions, then you should choose the one with the most value.
If you are like many other people, the first description is more appealing and you would likely purchase that meat.
The information on each label is presented in a different way.
Each alternative should be chosen equally.
The way information is presented can affect how you view it.
This effect is called framing.
Decision making can be influenced by framing.
The framing of the gas prices makes it very attractive to pay in cash in order to get a discount.
Your sense of freedom is violated by not being able to choose.
Too much choice can be frustrating, and it can impair your thinking.
This effect was demonstrated in a study where shoppers at a grocery store were presented with a display of 24 or 6 different types of jam.
The shoppers received a coupon for jam.
The variety didn't produce more sales.
3 percent of shoppers at the display bought jam.
30 percent of the shoppers at the display with limited choices bought jam.
Different approaches to decision making are taken by people.
Satisficers try to find a "good enough" choice that meets their minimum requirements, while mxmizers try to find a "good enough" choice that meets their minimum requirements.
It was found that maximizers tend to choose the best option, while satisficers tend to choose the worst option.
In the long run, college graduates who are maximizers are less satisfied with their career choices because they land jobs with much higher salaries than their satisficing counterparts.
You can learn how to be more satisfied with your decisions by reading Using Psychol ogy in Your Life.
This maximization scale is used to find out if you are a maximizer.
It's only right for me to be on the lookout for better opportunities, no matter how satisfied I am with my job.
When I am listening to the radio in the car, I check other stations to see if something better is playing, even if I am satisfied with what I'm listening to.
While attempting to watch one program, I channel surf, often scanning through the available options.
Renting videos is hard.
I'm trying to pick the best one.
I have a hard time finding clothing that I like.
I like lists that try to rank things like the best singers, the best athletes, and the best novels.
I try to imagine all the other possibilities when I'm faced with a choice.
I have the highest standards for myself, no matter what I do.
Add up your points.
maximizers are people who get high scores on the scale.
One of the luxuries of adulthood is making your own decisions.
Making important life decisions can be difficult.
People make small and big decisions.
College students' thinking about important academic decisions, such as choosing what they will study in college, is something that some cognitive researchers are interested in.
They wanted to know if the "maximizing" and "satisficing" approaches to decision making were related to college students' tendency to second guess their chosen majors as well as their satisfaction with their choices.
All of the juniors and seniors who were surveyed had declared a major.
The maximizers spent more time thinking about how things might have turned out differently if they had made different decisions.
The thinking was related to the degree of satisfaction with the chosen major.
Think like a satisficer.
You should try to identify your minimum requirements for a good course of study.
A degree that allows you to learn about people from different cultures will help you develop business skills.
You don't have to find the best option for achieving these goals.
You need to choose a course of study that will set you on the right path and help with both goals.
You should promise yourself that you will stick to your decision.
You might be less satisfied with your decisions if you know you can change them.
Accept the course of study you chose for a good reason.
Schwartz says that the only way to find happiness and stability in the presence of seemingly attractive and tempting options is to say no.
I've made a decision.
I'm not in the market.
You should stop thinking about other options once you have decided.
You will probably have to take some classes that you don't like.
A few of your professors might be boring.
You may be challenged by tests and other requirements.
Any course of study will have drawbacks.
You will experience occasional dips in satisfaction.
Think about the good that comes from your decisions.
Whether you are choosing what to study in college or making a major decision, keep in mind that there are many perfectly fine options.
It is possible to free your mind and give you time to do other worthwhile things by thinking carefully about your choices and making a "good enough" decision.
Complete the learning goal activities to maximize your learning.
Write your own explanations of bold and italic terms.
Problem solving strategies can be applied by naming two problems in your life and explaining how you solved them.
There aren't always direct means of attaining a goal.
How you think about the problem can affect your ability to find effective solutions.
Sub goals, working backward, analogy, and insight are the four most common problem solving strategies.
The main goal of solving the problem will be achieved if each sub goal is reached.
Sub goals are important for many problems.
A high school student wants to become a doctor.
The student needs to first be admitted to college in order to achieve this goal.
Meeting another goal is earning good grades in high school.
Problem solving involves breaking down a problem into sub goals.
Proceeding from the goal state to the initial state can help yield a solution when the appropriate steps are not clear.
The Tower of Hanoi is a problem that requires using sub goals to solve.
A quarter, a nickle, and a penny can be used to represent the pegs.
The disks should be moved to the peg on the other side.
Only one disk can be moved at a time.
You can't put a bigger disk on top of a smaller one.
The task should be broken into sub goals.
The first goal is to move the largest disk to the farthest peg.
This requires four moves.
The first peg is where the smallest disk is moved.
This requires two moves.
There is only one waterlily on the lake on the first day of summer.
It takes 60 days for the lake to be completely covered in water lilies.
You assume that on the first day there is one water lily, on the second day there are two water lilies, and on the third day there are four water lilies.
It will take a long time to solve the problem this way.
If you work backwards from the goal state to the initial state, what will happen?
Half of the lake must have been covered in water lilies on day 59 if the lilies double every 24 hours.
The problem can be solved quickly and easily by tumors.
The surgeon needs to aim the laser very precisely.
The problem posed by this example is very difficult.
The problem can't be solved by using sub goals.
An analogy can help solve the problem.
The surgeon remembers reading a story about a general who wanted to capture a fortress.
The general had to move a large number of soldiers up to the fortress, but all the roads to the fortress were planted with mines.
A large group of soldiers would set off the mines, but small groups could travel safely.
The general Converging divided the soldiers into small groups and had each group take a different road to the laser beams fortress.
The surgeon's problem is similar to the general's problem in that she gets the idea to aim several lasers at the tumor from different angles.
Each laser will be weak enough to not destroy the living tissue.
The intensity of all the lasers will be enough to destroy the tumor.
The best way to solve the "tumor problem" is through an analogy.
Can you solve the ones that have been solved before?
You may not realize that something is a problem until it looks like a tumor deep inside a patient's body.
It is only when you see the keys in the tissue.
If you know you have a problem, you can start your locked car.
A solution may pop into your head as you stand there, as you ponder the problem for a period of time.
The problem of a fortress is different from the other three.
When you stop thinking about a problem, you get insight.
I was convinced that some nonhuman animals could destroy the tumor.
He provided objects that the chimp could use to reach the bananas.
The chimp jumped at the bananas.
That didn't work.
If you don't have several subgoals to be for repairs, you research the best price, cut enough money to pay for achieved.