As elevation increases, the temperature decreases.
The water content of snow deposited at higher altitudes is only available to plants after it has melted.
After the snow has melted,iferous forests become productive.
In a highly diverse system, disturbances may affect a few of the components, but one or more unaffected components can replace them.
In systems with low biodiversity, there may be more permanent effects.
Fires, floods, disease, and the effects caused by humans are some of the problems that threaten the stability of the ecosystems.
As the wind blows, it pushes surface water in the same direction, blowing it away from the west coast of South America.
The bottom-up ecological effect is stimulated by the nutrients.
Sea birds eat fish.
When the trade winds and upwelling stop, the local food web and fish industry collapses.
As a result of the carcasses of dead sea animals, many marine invertebrate populations increase in number.
The effects of El Nio stretch from Australia to the southwestern United States.
Both increase the amount of particulate matter in the atmosphere and reduce the amount of solar radiation reaching the surface of the earth.
A decrease in primary production leads to a bottom-up effect.
CO2 is released into the atmosphere by volcanic eruptions.
The last mass extinction occurred 65 million years ago at the K-T boundary.
It could have been caused by a volcanic eruption or asteroid impact.
Most of the species became extinct, including the dinosaurs.
It could have been caused by a volcanic eruption or asteroid impact.
Half of the species became extinct.
Dinosaurs became the dominant fauna after the extinction opened up ecological niches.
Plates have fault lines.
Plates collide and create earthquakes, volcanos, and mountains.
The plates that are moving apart are in the ocean basins.
A long-term isolating mechanism for speciation is the formation of continents arising from the separation of larger plates.
As mountains and volcanos form, environmental conditions change, creating new niches for speciation.
Australia, South America, Africa, and India were once part of a supercontinent called Gondwana.
When the continents separated, mammals on Australia, South America, and Antarctica became isolated from other mammals.
The mammals on the remaining land mass evolved into the placental mammals.
The biogeochemical cycles describe the flow of essential elements from the environment to living things.
The major storage locations for essential elements, the processes through which each element incorporates into plants and animals, and the processes through which each element returns to the environment are outlined in the following list.
Animals drink water or eat other organisms which are mostly water, while plants absorb water from the soil.
Animals and plants break down.
The building of all organic compounds requires carbon.
Plants and animals use CO2 in the same way.
Plants and animals release CO2 when organic material is burned.
Nitrogen is required for the production of nucleic acids.
Nitrogen is obtained by eating plants or other animals.
2 to NO3 can be achieved by lightning and UV radiation.
Various nitrifyingbacteria made 4 to NO2 and NO2 to NO3
Plants convert 4 or NO3 to organic compounds.
Animals andbacteria release nitrogen from their bodies.
3 are converted to N2 by denitrifyingbacteria.
It is necessary for the manufacture of nucleic acids.
The biogeochemical cycles of calcium and magnesium are similar to the phosphorus cycle.
Animals excrete phosphorus in their waste products when they break down.
Population growth, destruction of habitats for agriculture and mining, pollution from industry and transportation, and many other activities contribute to the damage of the environment.
Most of the solar radiation that passes through the atmosphere is visible light.
The atmosphere reflects some of the solar radiation back into space, while the rest is absorbed by the earth.
Some of the radiation comes back into the atmosphere, but it's longer wavelength radiation.
CO2 and other gases are absorbed by the infrared radiation as it passes through the atmosphere on its way out into space.
Fossil fuels are burned for energy as the food and energy needs of the human population rise.
Burning traps more heat.
Global temperatures are rising.
Warmer temperatures raise sea levels, decrease agriculture output, affect weather patterns, increase human disease, and threaten extinction to species, by disrupting the environmental conditions to which species are adapted.
Ozone is formed in the upper atmosphere when UV radiation reacts with oxygen.
The ozone blocks the UV radiation from reaching the surface of the earth, which would cause damage to plants and animals.
chlorofluorocarbons enter the upper atmosphere and break down ozone molecule.
Although their manufacture has stopped, chlorofluorocarbons are still being used as propellants in aerosol sprays and in the manufacture of plastic foams.
UV radiation can reach the surface of the earth when the ozone layer thins.
Fossil fuels and industrial processes release pollutants into the air that contain sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide.
The substances react with water and produce acids.
When these acids return to the surface of the earth, they acidify soils and bodies of water, decreasing pH and adversely affecting plants and animals in lakes and rivers and on land.
The grasslands become deserts as a result of overgrazing.
habitats available to native species are lost as a result of this.
The slash-and-burn method of clearing tropical rain forests increases atmospheric CO2, which contributes to the greenhouse effect.
Burning the forest destroys the nutrients because they are stored in the vegetation.
The soil of some rain forests can only support one or two years of agriculture.
Air pollution, water pollution, and land pollution affect the materials essential to life.
Many pollutants do not degrade quickly and remain in the environment for a long time.
There are subtle ways in which pollution occurs.
A lake can be polluted with sewage.
The oxygen supplies are reduced when the phytoplankton respire.
When the algae die, their bodies are consumed by detritivorousbacteria, which further depletes the oxygen.
Many animals, including fish and invertebrates, are deprived of oxygen due to the result.
Growth rates are balanced when the process occurs naturally.
The accelerated process often leads to the death of fish and the growth of anaerobicbacteria that produce foul-smelling gases.
Plants and animals are becoming extinct at a faster rate than the planet has ever experienced, as a result of human activities, especially the destruction of tropical rain forests and other habitats.
Many of the disappearing plants could become useful to humans if they were to survive.
A review of the material presented in this chapter is provided by the questions that follow.
They can be used to evaluate how well you understand the concepts.
AP multiple-choice questions are often more general, covering a broad range of concepts.
The two practice exams in this book are for these types of questions.
Four possible answers or sentence completions are followed by each of the following questions or statements.
The one best answer or sentence is what you choose.
The age structure diagrams represent four different populations.
A population of 500 experiences 55 births and 5 deaths in a year.
The following key can be used for questions.
The answer in the key can be used more than once.
The burr-bearing seeds that are dispersed by clinging to the fur of mammals do not harm or help the mammals.
Both the monarch and viceroy butterflies have orange wings with black markings.
Both the monarch caterpillar and butterfly are unpalatable and toxic when the monarch caterpillar feeds on milkweed.
Oxpeckers are birds that ride rhinoceroses and other ungulates and eat skin parasites.
The poisonous snakes have bright colors of red, black, and yellow.
Several species of harmless snakes look like poisonous coral snakes.
The following pyramid is referred to in question 18.
The questions that follow are typical of an entire AP exam question or just that part of a question that is related to this chapter.
There are two types of questions on the AP exam.
It takes about 20 minutes to answer a long free-response question.
Sometimes they offer you a choice of questions to answer.
6 minutes is the time it takes to answer a short free-response question.
Don't use bullets or outline form.
diagrams can be used to supplement your answers, but a diagram alone is not adequate.
A fly that does not sting or bite has yellow and black stripes on its body.
Explain the value these markings bring to harmless flies in two or three sentences.
The health of a community is influenced by a keystone species.
The succession of a lake and the eutrophication of a lake can be compared.
The defenseless viceroy butterfly benefits from mimicking the aposematic monarch butterfly.
Both organisms benefit from mutualism.
The oxpeckers get food and the rhinos have parasites removed.
Snakes are Mullerian mimics when they both look alike and have some kind of aposematic defense.
The bright colored harmless snakes are mimics because they benefit from the defense mechanism of the colorful poisonous snakes they resemble.
The species are characteristic of the later stages of succession.
Primary succession takes place on newly exposed substrates.
Secondary succession would be initiated by all of the other choices.
The burning of any organic fuel such as wood, coal, oil, natural gas, and gasoline adds CO2 to the atmosphere.
Nitrogen that plants can't use is converted to gaseous N2 by soilbacteria.
The beginning of a food chain should begin with producers.
The oysters are eating the producers.
The pelicans occupy the top of the food chain.
Many pelican populations were close to extinction before the United States banned the pesticide DDT.