The new universe was strange and troubling, as well as being distant from human experience and human problems.
Questions about the power and potential of the human mind were assumed to be special because of the uncertainty of the universe.
Sigmund Freud's findings and speculations were disturbing.
Most psychologists thought that human behavior was the result of thinking by the conscious mind.
The irrational for the primitive, irrational uncon unconscious was driven by sexual, aggressive, and pleasure-seeking scious (id), the rationalizing con desires and was locked in constant battle with the mind's two other parts.
A person should do something for Freud.
Western literature was influenced by the climate of pessimism.
In the 19th century, novelists wrote as all-knowing narrators, describing realistic characters in an understandable, if sometimes harsh, society.
Many writers in the twentieth century adopted a viewpoint of a single individual.
The novelists focused on the irrationality of the human mind.
The stream-of-consciousness technique was used by some novelists.
The idea of progress was rejected by some writers.
Creative artists rejected old forms and values after the war.
The Chicago School of architects built scrapers and office buildings without ornamentation in the 1890s.
One of the twentieth century's more influential paintings was inspired by a brothel scene in Barcelona.
Picasso abandoned unified perspective and instead depicted fragmented figures and distorted forms in his search for a breakthrough.
Three faces were inspired by African masks.
Frank Lloyd Wright was known for their use of wide variety of materials and their appearance as part of the landscape.
German-speaking countries were the center of architectural leadership in Europe.
Walter Gropius founded the Bauhaus in 1919.
Art took on a nonrepresentational, abstract character after 1905.
The mind's eye is painted by artists such asVincent van Gogh.
The South Pacific was where Paul Gauguin found inspiration in Polynesian forms, colors, and legends.
Cubism, an artistic approach focused on a complex geometry of zigzagging lines and sharply aligned planes, was created in 1907 by the famous Spanish painter Picasso.
The influence of Poly nesian art on Gauguin and of carved African masks on Picasso reflected the growing influence of non-Western artistic traditions in European art.
The development of abstract, nonrepresenta tional art began in 1910.
Wassily Kandinsky turned away from nature and created abstract works.
After World War I, radicalization accelerated.
The accepted standards of art and behavior were attacked.
Many people were attracted to surrealism after 1924.
There are fantastic worlds of wild dreams and complex symbols painted by realists.
Developments in modern music were very similar to those in painting.
The emotional intensity of expressionism was attractive to Compos ers.
In opera and ballet, modernity flourished.
Arnold Schonberg (SHUHN-buhrg; 1874- 1951) was one of the composers who turned their backs on long established musical conventions.
As abstract painters arranged lines and color but did not draw identifiable objects, modern composers arranged sounds without creating recog nizable harmonies.
Cinema and radio became major industries after World War I, and standardized commercial entertainment began to replace the traditional arts and amusements of people in villages and smal towns.
The United States dominated the silent-film industry during the First World War.
Motion pictures became the main entertainment of the world until after the Second World War.
In countries with dictatorships, motion pictures became powerful tools of indoctrination.
The Communist view of Rusian history was dramatized in a series of epic films made in the 1920s.
After the war, popular culture was dominated by radio.
National broadcasting networks were established in the 1920s.
Direct government control was the norm in Europe, China, Japan, India, and elsewhere.
More than three-fourths of the households in Great Britain and Germany had at least one cheap, mass-produced radio by the late 1930s.
Radio was well suited for political propaganda.
Informal "fireside chats" were used by Baldwin to bolster support.
After the guns went silent in 1918, the Great War continued to influence global politics and societies.
World War I is the beginning of many modern world conflicts.