State power and authority were established by the imperial powers after they conquered these territories.
This meant creating bureaucratic structures similar to those found in the home country in an attempt to "civilize" the local population.
Basic public goods such as roads, schools, and hospitals were included in these institutions.
New institutions and new laws were different.
Some empires relied on local leaders to enforce their will, while others bypassed indigenous elites in favor of their own centralized forms of authority.
The degree of state capacity and autonomy found in the Institutions of Imperialism 313 in the imperial country was reflected in the differences.
Even if democratic practices were the norm in the home country, they were not introduced in either case.
Individuals under colonial rule had few political rights.
The state had some effects.
The benefits of basic infrastructure improved communication and transportation.
When life expectancies and infant mortality rates were combined with traditional family practices, a population explosion occurred in many poor countries.
Local religions and customs were replaced by Western practices and institutions.
The transition was incomplete.
Many subject peoples were placed in a kind of institutional limbo, with a hybrid of Western and traditional institutions, because of the economic and politically underdeveloped Imperial territories.
The desire for freedom from foreign control grew out of the frustration that grew out of this conflicted identity.
New identities were often incorporated into existing social institutions when organizational forms were imposed from outside.
Ethnic and national identities were included.
In most of the world that came under imperial control, people identified themselves by tribe or religion, economic position, or vocation, rather than by ethnic or national identity.
As empires brought their own political institutions with them, they also introduced the concepts of ethnicity and nation.
Imperial elites, who were shaped and defined by national and ethnic identities, took great interest in identifying and classifying different ethnic groups in the regions they came to occupy and structuring their political and economic control around these classifications.
Even as groups were subject to Western classification, they were often divided across imperial borders that had little regard for their tribal, religious, or any other identities.
The basic rights of people who had not defined themselves by ethnicity were tied to how they were defined by the empire.
In some cases, the ethnic classification was determined by the idea that certain ethnic groups were superior to others.
The European and Japanese empires were influenced by the assumption that the colonizing race was superior to the colonized and would rule them.
Different people within the empire were categorized.
Some ethnic groups were promoted to positions of power and economic advantage.
As non indigenous peoples migrated to colonies, colonialism made these hierarchies worse.
Sometimes these migrants were settlers from the home country; in other cases, they were peoples from other parts of the empire or African slaves being brought to Brazil.
Ethnic and racial divisions were further worsened by foreign presences when certain groups were given specific economic or political privileges.
Inequality became intertwined with race or ethnicity.
The idea of national identity was also introduced by the imperial powers.
National identity grew to be a powerful force in the industrializing world during the late 19th and early 20th century, helping drive competition between the industrial powers and furthering the imperialist cause.
The peoples brought under imperial control had little or no idea of a right to a state.
The combination of nationalism and imperialism proved to be unstable.
Empires gave the peoples living in their overseas possessions limited ability to improve their standing within the empire.
These subject peoples were given the means to challenge foreign rule by the imperial powers' own concept of nationalism.
Empires gave their subjects ideological fodder that they would use to overturn imperialism.