Government-sponsored bodies tried to appease low-paid workers by offering full employment and other benefits.
Government economic planning helped restore production levels.
Hitler believed that socialism and excessive capitalism had weakened the German spirit and blamed Jews for various personal misfortunes.
The adulation that the Germans felt for Hitler in the mid-1930s is visible in this photo.
Hitler's popularity was based on his promises to rebuild Germany's depressed economy and restore its world power status by reversing the 1919 treaty ending World War I.
The newest stage of world history appealed to many Germans.
Anti-Semitism gave Hitler a scapegoat that he could use to distract the population from other problems.
Jews were forced to wear special emblems, their property was attacked and seized, and more and more were sent to concentration camps as the measures against them became more severe.
As the Holocaust raged in the concentration camps of Germany and conquered territories, Hitler's policy was to eliminate European Jewry.
Hitler's military and foreign policies were based on preparation for war.
He wanted to create a land empire that would extend across much of Europe, particularly toward the east, in order to recover from Germany's World War I losses.
The weak response from the Western democracies was caused by Hitler violating the limits on German weaponry.
Latin America, Japan, and the Soviet Union gained ground in the new authoritarian regimes of The Spread of Fascism and the Spanish Civil War.
In other parts of Europe, the rise of fascists was spurred by the Nazi triumph in Germany.
Many east central states took on fascist trappings.
There were fascist movements in Hungary.
Hitler's declaration of the union of Austria and Germany in 1938 was a victory for fascists in Austria.
Italy had a fascist state formed in the 1920s, led by Mussolini, after Hitler's advent.
Mussolini had promised an aggressive foreign policy and new nationalist glories, but his first decade had been moderate diplomatically.
Mussolini began to experiment if only to avoid being overshadowed.
Mussolini planned to avenge Italy's failure to conquer Ethiopia in the 1890s by attacking it in 1935.
The democratic powers in Europe and North America did not take action despite the League of Nations condemning the action.
The Italians won their new colony.
There was another destabilizing element here.
The war pitting parliamentary republic plus social reform was fought with advocates of a military-backed authoritarian state.
Civil war broke out in 1936.
The Spanish military forces, led by General Fran in Spain against republicans, were backed by an explicitly fascist party, the Falange (feh-LAHNJ), as well as more leftists between 1936 and 1939.
The Soviet Union supported parts of the country while Germany and Italy supported the Republican forces.
The Communists and anarchist movement played a crucial role.
The royalist forces won some of the republicans.
Spain was consumed by bitter fighting for three years.
Spanish cities were bombed by German and Italian forces in preparation for the bombing of civilians in World War II.
This was an example of how military and civilian lines were being blurred.
France, Britain, and the United States made vague supporting gestures to the republican forces but offered no concrete aid, fearful of provoking a wider conflict and paralyzed by internal disagreements about foreign policy.
Franco's forces won in 1939.
For the next 25 years, the regime maintained authoritarian controls, but it was not fascist.
The limitations of liberalism became evident in Latin America in the 1920s and 1930s.
The middle class had begun to enter politics, but it only gained power with the help of the military.
America, the ideology of liberalism was not an expression of the strength of the middle class but rather a series of ideas not suited to the realities of Latin America, where large segments of the population were landless, uneducated, and impoverished.
Public education and other classic liberal programs did not produce as much social mobility as had been expected.
Latin America's own populations and history for values and solutions to Latin American problems inspired artists and intellectuals who were discouraged by liberalism and World War I. Latin America was on a race to nowhere according to intellectuals in the 1920s.
The ideas of rationality, progress, and order associated with liberalism and the outward appearances of democracy were under attack in literature and the arts.
There were ideas of reform and social change.
University students in Argentina began a reform of their university system that gave them more power.
The movement spread to other countries.
There were other responses as well.
Picasso was working in a nonrepresentational style for three hours after German and Italian planes bombarded the city in 1937.
The city burned for three days.
1500 people were killed by photographs.
The international communist movement aided the strength of these parties of the left.
The Roman Catholic Church disliked the secularization of a capitalist society, which was one of the reasons why the left-leaning parties criticized existing governments and of liberalism as a political and economic philosophy.
The great world financial crisis made clear the economic dependency of Latin America and the internal weaknesses of the liberal regimes.
Sales of exported goods dropped quickly.
Reform movements gained steam as poverty grew.
The rise of a conservative response was supported by church and military leaders.
A move to curb capitalism while avoiding Marxism won a lot of attention.
The ideology appealed to conservative groups and the military in European as of society and made the state a well as Latin American societies because it emphasized the organic nature of society.
The interests of German fascists were adjusted by some corporatist leaders.
There is a credit system to support communal farms.
He expropriated foreign oil companies in Mexico from 1934 to 1940 and created a state oil monopoly.
These measures made him popular in Mexico and seemed to give substance to the communal farms, which began the promise of the revolution.
In Cuba, the leaders of a nationalist revolution aimed at social reform and breaking the grip of the United States took power in 1933 and although their rule soon was taken over by moderate elements, important changes and reforms took place.
The desire to integrate new forces into the political process was underscored by the new departures.
There was no better example of this than in Brazil.
The Brazilian economy collapsed in the 1929 crash because of coffee exports.
In 1937, he imposed a new constitution on the state governments and launched a new kind of centralized political program.
He leaned to the fascist "Integralists" in 1937 after holding off attempted coups by the communists.
It imposed an authoritarian regime within the context of nationalism and economic reforms, limiting immigration and eliminating parties and groups that resisted national integration or opposed the government.
For a while, he played off Germany and the Western powers in order to get favorable trade arrangements.
During World War II, despite his authoritarian sympathies, he joined the Allies and even sent troops to fight against the Italians.
Brazil received arms, financial support for industrial development, and trade advantages.
Some room for labor negotiations was allowed under strict government supervision.
There was little opposition to the gov ernment.
The economy was organized by the state.
By 1945, the opposition to the policies of Vargas was growing in Brazil and he was turning to the left in order to get the support of the labor movement.
The right and the left criticized him for committing suicide.
The struggle over his mantle of leadership has been going on for a long time.
Even after being imprisoned in the 1930s and being a martyr, Vargas remained a nationalist hero.
Argentina had Populism, Peron, and the Military.
The middle-class Radical party fell when the economy collapsed in 1929.
A military coup backed by nationalists, fascists, and socialists hopes to return Argentina to the golden days of the great export boom of the 1890s.
The coup failed.
As foreign investments increased, Argentina became more dependent.
Many of the industrial workers who had migrated from the countryside were now working in the industry.
The workers were organized in two labor federations.
A military group regained control of the government in 1943, after Conser vative governments had held power through the 1930s.
The new military rulers wanted to make Argentina the dominant power in South America.
Some were fans of the fascist powers.
He used Argentina who became dominant his position in the Ministry of Labor, and appealed to workers, raising their salaries, improving their political figure, and supporting their demands.
He used his position as Minister to appeal to the lower classes and gained popular support, aided by his wife, Eva, a fascinating woman from the Labor.
She became a public figure for Peron.
Peron's admiration for the Axis powers was well known.
He won the presidency in support of his presidential campaign after states tried to destroy him because of his fascist sympathies.
Peron forged an alliance with the workers, industrialists, and the military.
He learned that the radio, the press, and public speeches can mobilize public support.
He depended on his charisma to maintain his rule.
The program was couched in patriotism.
The railroads and telephone companies were nationalized by the government.
The Argentine economy boomed after the foreign debt was paid off.
There were economic problems again by 1949.
Her death in 1952 caused a lot of grief.
Peron's regime was a populist government with a broader base than had ever been attempted in Argentina.
As the economy worsened, it became harder to hold the interests of the various components of the coalition together.
Peron's control of the press and his violation of civil liberties were complained of by a democratic opposition.
Industrialists did not like the strength of labor organizations.
The military was worried that Peron would cut back on the military's gains.
The campaign against the Catholic Church began when the party became more radical.
He was driven into exile in 1955 by anti-Peron military officers.
Argentina was in the shadow of Peron for 20 years.
A succession of military-supported civilian governments tried to resolve the nation's economic problems and political instability after the banning of the Peronist party.
Even without Peron, the mass of urban workers and the strongly pro-Peron unions continued to fight for his programs, as austerity measures began to affect the living conditions of the working class.
Isabel was vice president when they won the presidential election in 1973.
Argentina's problems could not be solved by the old formulas when Peron died.
Argentina was once again put into military dictatorship.
The authoritarian military rule took over in Japan earlier than in the West.
It had affinities with the new regimes in Europe, including its aggressive military stance.
Military officials completed a conquest of the Chinese province of Manchuria without the support of the civilian government as the Depression hit Japan.
As political divisions increased in response to the initial impact of the Depression, a variety of nationalist groups emerged, some advocating a return to Shintoist or Confucian principles against the more Western values of urban Japan.
This was more than a political response.
As in Germany, a variety of groups used the occasion for a more sweeping protest against parliamen tary forms; nationalism here seemed a counterpoise to alien Western values.
Older military officers joined some bureaucrats in urging a more authoritarian state that could ignore party politics, while others wanted to expand the military to protect Japan from the uncertainties of the world economy.
The prime minister was murdered in May of 1932 by a group of younger army officers.
Moderate military leaders headed the executive branch for four years, frustrating both the military firebrands and the political parties.
The attempted military coup in 1936 was put down by forces controlled by the admirals and generals, but this group, including General Tojo Hideki, interfered with civilian cabinets, blocking the appointment of most liberal bureaucrats.
After 1936, a series of increasingly militaristic prime ministers were formed.
When war broke out between Japan and China in 1937, the military took over.
In 1937, Japan became involved in a skirmish with Chinese forces in the Beijing area because it wanted the Chinese government to gain strength so that it could threaten Japanese gains.
Initially, fighting spread was not planned.
Japanese military leaders argued that the nation's only interest was to defend Manchuria and Korea.
The General Staff held that China's armies should be defeated to prevent future trouble.
The cities and railroads of eastern China were quickly occupied by Japanese forces.
Bombing raids accompanied the invasion.
Military leaders in a tide of growing nationalism swept away the wishes of Japanese voters who had continued to prefer more moderate policies.
Japan sold half of its exports and bought 40% of its imports from Manchuria, Korea, and Taiwan by the end of the 1930s.
The military leadership, eager to justify further modernization of Japan's weaponry and to consolidate political control, and economic leaders, interested in rich resources of other parts of Asia--such as the rubber of British Malaya or the oil of the Dutch East Indies--soon pressed for wider conquests
Before the start of World War II, Japan tightened its hold over its earlier empire, particularly in Korea.
The Japanese military put down any resistance to suppression of Korean culture.
Korean teachers were forced to speak Japanese.
Japanese industrialists dominated Korean resources, while peasants were required to produce rice for Japan at the expense of nutrition in Korea itself.
Industrialization and Recovery Japan's policies in the 1930s alleviated the effects of the Depression for Japan even more than Hitler's policies did for Germany.
Half of Japan's factories were closed by the Depression and children were forced to beg for food on trains and farmers were eating tree bark.
Japan suffered less during the Depression decade than many Western nations did.
Two stages of Japan's attacks on China are shown.
Government military purchasing was supported by the same policy, but it is not clear if this was an essential response.
Japan's economy grew much more rapidly than that of the West and the Soviet Union after 1931, as it transitioned to industrialization.
The production of iron, steel, and chemicals went up.
Electric power spread quickly in the world.
The leading industries saw a sevenfold increase in the number of workers during the 1930s.
As assembly-line methods were introduced, Japanese manufacturing goods began to compete with those of the West.
Even though the Japanese controlled only 3.6 percent of world trade in 1936, the first Western outcry against Japanese exports was produced.
A series of new industrial policies were initiated by Japan.
Mass patriotism and group loyalty were developed by the government.
Big companies began to offer lifetime contracts to a minority of skilled workers in order to promote hard work and devotion.
The distinctive Japanese policies, not part of its initial industrialization, proved to be a feature of Japanese society.
Japan was the third largest merchant marine in the world by 1937.
The nation became self-sufficient in machine tools and scientific equipment as a result of the growth in technical training.
The economic expansion of the later 20th century was delayed by Japan's involvement in World War II.
The Soviet Union was spared from the Depression because of its separate economy.
Even as the Western economies collapsed, the Soviets made much of the nation's ongoing industrial growth.
The 1930s saw a tightening of the communist system in ways that mirrored authoritarian responses in other societies.
Stalin devoted himself to two tasks: to make the Soviet Union a fully industrial society and to do so under full control of the state.
tolerance for small private businesses and wealthy peasant farmers was reversed by him.
Stalin wanted modernization but with a revolutionary twist.
He insisted on Soviet control and substantial Soviet isolation even though he was willing to borrow Western techniques and advice.
Stalin was ruthless in applying his policies, attacking groups like wealthy peasants and other possible sources of opposition.
One of the most brutal episodes of the century killed twenty million people.
The program to collectivize agriculture began in the 1920s.
The creation of large, state-run farms was the result of collectivization.
peasants were pressed to join collectives.
Collective farms could group scarce equipment, such as tractors and harvesters, in order to mechanize agriculture more effectively, as they are distinctly socialistic.
Reflecting a traditional reluctance to leave peasants to their own devices, collectivization allowed more efficient control over peasants.
Stalin's hopes for a speedup of industrialization required that resources be taken from peasants, through taxation, in order to provide capital for industry, which is why government and party control was desirable.
The peasantry had a mixed voice.
The opportunity to have more direct access to land was welcomed by many laborers.
Most kulaks refused to cooperate, often destroying livestock and other property rather than agreeing to collectivization.
Stalin's insistence on pressing forward caused the famine.
Millions of kulaks were deported to Siberia during the early 1930s.
The decimation of the kulaks may have weakened opportunities to oppose Stalin's increasingly authoritarian hold for a generation or two.
Even though collectivization was more thorough, it was not a huge success for the peasants who participated.
Although the collective farms allowed peasants small plots of their own, as well as job security and considerable propagandizing by the Communist party members, they created an atmosphere of factory-like discipline and rigid planning from above that antagonized many peasants.
The centralized planning process allowed few incentives for special efforts and often complicated a smooth flow of supplies and equip ment, a problem worsened by the Stalinist regime's priority concentration on the industrial sector.
Under industrialization, the Soviet economy demanded a higher percentage of labor force than it did for agricultural production.
This effort involved censorship and forced ject-matter of the life of the working class and the peasantry and orthodoxy, but it was also an attempt to resolve earlier Russian's struggle for socialism.
There are no country problems of relating formal culture to the mass and trying to preserve a national distinctiveness in the world because of the seductions of the West.
There is an effort to define Soviet artistic policy rights of women.
To depict life as our literature does, you must know life to be mysticism, hierarchic religious attitudes, and threats of hell-fire.
Where can the education of the working people in the spirit of socialism be found?
The method of socialist realism is what we call the sure of his tomorrow, but he doesn't know if he will have work.
Four square decay of bourgeois literature derives from the decline and decay of real life.
The break with old-style roman of the capitalist system means a break with the romanticism of the present condition of bourgeois culture and litera and nonexistent heroes, drawing the reader away from the con.
The heyday of world was when bourgeois literature reflected the victories and shackles of life into anizable and utopian system over feudalism.
Romanticism is not alien to our literature, a literature capitalism capable of creating great works, have gone, never to standing firmly on a materialistic basis, but ours is a romanticism return.
The progress of socialist authors and heroes is being made.
The "celebrities" of that literature which has sold its pen whole life of our Party, of the working class and its struggle, is to capital are today thieves, detectives, prostitutes, pimps, and a fusion bourgeois.
Our Party has always been able to unite its army of writers and artists because of its broad vision, rep efficiency and practicality, as well as the resentatives of whom we are glad to be able to.
The number of revo Soviet literature must be able to portray our heroes and tolutionary writers in the capitalist countries is still small but it is see our tomorrow.
Our tomorrow will grow and will grow with every day's sharpening of the class being prepared by planned and conscious work today.
The collective farms allowed adequate food supplies once the transition period was over, and they also allowed excess workers to be used for urban labor.
The late 1920s and early 1930s saw a huge influx of unskilled workers into the cities, as the Soviet Union's industrialization began to move into high gear.
If Stalin's approach to agriculture had serious flaws, his handling of industry was in many ways a hasten industrialization of U.S.S.R.
The gov power led to the construction of massive factories in metallurgy, mining, and electric power to make the Soviet industrialization at a cost of availability.
Peter had contemplated a huge departure, but industrialization made it more massive.
Heavy industry built on the nation's great natural resources and served to prepare for war with Hitler's anticommunist Germany.
The Soviet version of industrial society was characterized by distinctive industrialization which slighted consumer goods production.
Stalin wanted to create an alterna tive not just to private business ownership but also to the profit-oriented market mechanisms of the West.
He used formal, centralized resource allocation to distribute equipment and supplies.
There was no question that rapid industrial growth occurred, despite the fact that quota for individual factories were set in Moscow.
The Soviet output of machinery and metal products grew 14-fold during the first two five-year plans.
Germany and the United States were the only other industrial powers.
The history of backwardness seemed to have ended.
The industrialization process in the Soviet Union produced similar results to those in the West.
Many people were crowded into the cities because of the lack of housing stock.
Incentives were used to motivate workers to try within the U.S.S.R.
In order to avoid their service to society, particularly capable workers received bonuses and elaborate public awards.
The adoption of western European services was established by communist policy at the same time as it reversed decades of neglect.
Under Joseph houses and recreational programs, vacations on the Black Sea, as well as protection in Stalin, were part of the meeting cultural forms that workers had.
Modest standards of living were provided by the Soviet industrial society.
Although soviet industry was directed from the top, with no legal outlet for worker grievances, strikes were outlawed, and the sole trade union movement was controlled by the party.
The Soviet Union used force and authority, but it also recognized the importance of worker support, so informally, laborers were consulted as well.
New controls were instituted by Stalinism.
Stalin wanted uplifting styles that were different from the nonrepresentational modern art themes of the West.
Dissenters who did not toe the line risked exile to Siberia prison camps, and party loyalists in groups like the Writers Union helped ferret them out.
It was also controlled.
Many scientists were ruined by government persecution.
Stalin combined his industrialization program with a new intensification of government police procedures, and he used the party and state apparatus to monopolise power, even more thoroughly than Hit ler's state attempted.
In one of the great bloodbaths of the 20th century, real and imagined opponents of communism were executed.
The theories are exemplified by the painting.
Thousands more were sent to labor camps.
The nation's traditions made diplomatic initiatives after the 1917 revolution unwontedly modest.
The Soviet Union was allowed into the League of Nations as diplomatic relations with major nations were reestablished.
The nations continued to encourage and often guide internal Communist party activities in many other countries, despite the fact that a few secret military negotiations with Turkey in the early 1920s showed a flicker of interest in more active diplomacy.
It was clear that more active concern was needed after Hitler's rise.
Hitler was fond of saying that a strong Germany was a threat to Russia from the west, and that he wanted to create a "living room" for Germany to the east.
Stalin wanted to work with the Western democracies to block the German threat.
The Soviet Union tried to participate in a common response to German and Italian intervention in the Spanish Civil War.
France and Britain were not as suspicious of the Soviets as the Nazis were.
The Soviet Union signed an agreement with Hitler in 1939 because they were not ready for war.
The pact gave the Soviets more time to prepare for war and allowed them to attack eastern Poland and Finland in an effort to regain territories lost in World War I.
The first sign of a revival of Russia's interest in conquest was seen here.
The power of younger army officers is pushing for overseas expansion.
The Great Depression of the 1930s made Germany economically self-sufficient and weakened global ties.
Stalin concentrated on and refused to collaborate in measures that might have alleviated standing alone, in a nationalist and isolationist version of the economic dislocation, despite the fact that the Soviet Union still mouthed communist com European countries and the United States increased their tariffs to internationalism.
Their policies made the Russian Revolution great.
The world was collapsing even worse.
Japan was badly hurt by the new U.S. tariffs that no society, certainly not the West, was capable of cutting into silk exports.
Excellent analyses of that event were provided.
What were the reasons for the abandonment of 4?
The impact of Depression in the West was compared.