Puritan settlers seized the Indians' lands after a massacre in 1637.
Gorbachev's series of political and economic reforms included shifting the Commmunist economy to a mixed economy allowing for capitalism.
The Treaty of Kanagawa was the first step in establishing a relationship between the United States and Japan.
President Wilson sent a general to put down attacks on the Mexican border.
The welfare reform measure was signed by President Clinton and was passed by the Republican Congress.
Jackson decided to remove federal deposits from the national bank during his fight with it.
In order to comply with Jackson's demands, the Secretary of the Treasury continued to draw on government's accounts in the national bank, but deposited new federal receipts in state banks.
He implemented a policy of scientific management of natural resources to serve the public interest.
His work started the movement.
She had great success growing indigo, which led to many other plantations growing the crop as wel.
The United States boundaries at the Mississippi River and the 31st parallel were established by a treaty with Spain in 1795.
In 1531, he led his soldiers to conquer the Inca Empire.
Yeoman farmers lived and worked on their own small farms, growing food and cash crops to trade for necessities.
The Matriarch of a planter's household is responsible for the domestic aspects of the estate.
The owners of large farms in the South used to have slaves work on them.
The expansion of the United States was the main concern of the president.
Mexico broke off relations with the US after the annexation of Texas.
Polk tried to subvert Mexican authority in California.
Mexico gave up any claims on Texas north of the Rio Grande River in exchange for New Mexico and California being ceded to the United States.
After Franceceded to the British its territory east of the Mississippi River, India launched an attack on British forts and settlements.
The white male settlers in a new U.S. territory would vote on whether or not to allow slavery.
The formation of the People's party in 1892 was encouraged by political success of Farmers' Al iance candidates, who advocated a variety of reform issues, including free coinage of silver, income tax, postal savings, regulation of railroads, and direct mail.
The war in the Kansas Territory began after John Brown and his associates hacked five men to death in the pro-slavery settlement of Pottawatomie.
In the late 16th and early 17th century, several powerful Algonquian tribes under the leadership of Chief Powhatan organized into thirty chiefdoms along the Atlantic coast.
He was called Powhatan by the English after his tribe's name, and was the powerful, charismatic chief of many towns in eastern Virginia.
The philosophy was founded by William James.
Pundits believed that ideas gained their validity from their social consequences and practical application.
The Industrial Revolution and its new organization of labor created an array of professions in the 19th century.
Theodore Roosevelt did not win the Republican nomination for president in 1912.
The "Bul Moose" party was formed after he left the Republican party.
The Republicans split the vote, allowing the Democrats to win.
A sometimes grassroots and sometimes elite- driven national movement for social and political reforms supported by elements of both major political parties during the Progressive Era.
The ban on the manufacture and sale of alcohol lasted from 1920 to 1933, though the law was difficult to enforce.
A colony is owned by an individual.
Martin Luther, a German monk whose public criticism of corruption in the Roman Catholic Church, and his teaching that Christians can communicate directly with God, gained a lot of attention in the 16th century.
The American Railway Union went on a national strike, shutting down major railways in sympathy with workers in Pullman, Illinois, who went on strike.
The English religious dissenters wanted to "purify" the Church of England's Catholic practices.
George Fox founded the religion.
They refused to take oaths and embraced pacifism.
The colony of Pennsylvania was established as a result of fleeing persecution.
Racist characteristics and myths are used to justify enslaving people.
The abolition of the slaves, punishment of the rebels, and control of the Confederate states after the war were all sought by senators and congressmen.
Commercial agriculture was enabled in the nineteenth century by steam- powered vehicles.
The first English child born in the New World was part of an English expedition of 117 settlers.
He was the leader of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters who planned a march on Washington D.C. to demand an end to racial discrimination in the defense industries.
The Roosevelt administration reached an agreement with the Randolph group to stop the march.
There were violent disputes between farmers and ranchers in the late 1800s over land and water rights.
The former governor of California was elected president in 1980.
He cut taxes and increased defense spending while in office.
The HIV/AIDS crisis grew to prominence in the United States during his presidency, as the federal debt tripled, the federal deficit rose, and programs such as housing and school lunches were cut.
The Iran-Contra scandal was revealed in 1986 after he signed an arms- control treaty with the Soviet Union.
President Reagan's "supply- side" economic philosophy combined tax cuts with the goals of decreased government spending, reduced regulation of business, and a balanced budget.
President Hoover created a federal program to lend money to banks to help them avoid bankruptcy.
Native American groups protest living conditions on Indian reservations through demonstrations, legal action, and violence.
The Russian Revolution, mail bombs, strikes, and riots caused fear among many Americans after the First World War of Communists.
The South was supposedly saved from Yankee domination by post-Civil War Democratic leaders.
The discovery that the yel ow fever was carried by mosquitoes was the result of his work.
More effective controls of the worldwide disease were developed by this understanding.
The ruthlessness of social Darwinism was brought about by the social philosophy developed by Lester Frank War.
People could shape the process of evolutionary social development through cooperation, innovation, and planning.
The beginnings of Protestant Christianity can be traced back to the European religious movement.
Catholics and Protestants were tortured and imprisoned in large numbers during this period.
Christian conservatives with a faith based political agenda include prohibition of abortion and prayer in public schools.
Germany was required to make payments to the victors of the First World War in order to confess its responsibility for the war.
There was a deep bitterness among Germans because of these two requirements.
Alexander Hamilton was the first Secretary of the Treasury and his analysis accurately foretold the future of American industry.
Representation democracy in which citizens govern themselves by electing representatives, or legislators, to make key decisions on the citizens' behalf is a political belief.
Deliberate attitude of humility and frugality was adopted by Thomas Jefferson in his presidency.
During the early 19th century, it was used to describe supporters of a strict interpretation of the Constitution, which they believed would safeguard individual freedoms and states' rights from the threats posed by a strong central government.
The idealist Republican vision of the union was developed by Thomas Jefferson.
In 1920, the Republican presidential candidate Warren G. Harding promised to contrast with the policies of his opponent.
British soldiers seized the American Revolutionary leaders' depot of supplies on the night of April 18, 1775.
Paul Revere raised the alarm when he rode through the night.
Young people in the 1920s were experimenting with new forms of recreation and sexuality.
Tensions between the two regions increased because of the cultural shift between the Eastern and Midwestern areas.
He was the first African American to play baseball.
He stimulated the integration of other professional sports.
White teenagers were buying rhythm and blues records that had been only purchased by African Americans and Hispanic Americans.
Freed started playing these records as a way to overcome the racial barrier.
The gap between "white" and "black" music was bridged as the popularity of the music genre increased.
The Standard Oil Company of Ohio was his first step in creating his vast oil empire.
He came up with the idea of a holding company.
State laws banning abortions during the first trimester were struck down by the Supreme Court.
The Christian faith and religious practices of the Roman Catholic Church had a great political, economic, and social influence on Western Europe and the Americas.
Romantics valued emotion, mysticism, and individualism, which was a reaction to the rationalism of the previous century.
She redefined the role of the presidential spouse and was the first woman to speak at a national political convention.
She travels throughout the nation to promote the New Deal, women's causes, organized labor, and meet with African American leaders.
Roosevelt sought to help struggling Americans through his New Deal programs that created employment and social programs.
He led the country through most of the Second World War and declared war on Japan and Germany after the bombing of Pearl Harbor.
He was the assistant secretary of the navy.
He used the fame of the military campaign in Cuba to his advantage.
He became President McKinley's vice president after his death.
His policies on natural resources helped start the movement.
Unable to win the Republican nomination for president in 1912, he formed his own party of progressive Republicans called the "Bul Moose" party.
Christian conservatives with a faith-based political agenda include allowing prayer in public schools and prohibition of abortion.
The Monroe Doctrine was revised by President Theodore Roosevelt in order to prevent European nations from intervening in the Western Hemisphere.
The Battle of San Juan Hil near Santiago, Cuba, was the only engagement of the First U.S. Volunteer Cavalry, and they were celebrated as a national hero, bolstering Roosevelt's political career.
In order to minimize occurrences of Indian violence, a boundary was drawn between Canada and Georgia.
Steel manufacturing cities in Ohio and Pennsylvania are examples of parts of the midwestern and northeastern United States marked by industrial decline and falling populations during the second half of the twentieth century.
In 1920, he and Bartolomeo Vanzetti were arrested for stealing $16,000 from a paymaster and his guard.
Many liberals and radicals believe that their conviction was based on their political ideas and ethnic origin rather than the evidence against them, because their trial took place during a time of many bombings by anarchists.
Despite a lack of clear evidence, the trial of two Italian immigrants that occurred at the height of Italian immigration and against the backdrop of numerous terror attacks by anarchists, was found guilty of murder and executed in 1927.
Bars and taverns where men would gather to drink, eat, relax, and discuss politics.
The American colonies were given considerable freedom to pursue their economic and political interests in exchange for British acquiescence during the first half of the 18th century.
The slaughter of the Cheyennes and Arapahos in Colorado was exposed as a despicable massacre after initial reports that it was a justified battle.
The Cuban government sponsored the overthrow of a corrupt dictator.
The State Department believed that the Sandinistas were supplying the Salvadoran rebels with Cuban and Soviet arms.
The Reagan administration ordered the CIA to train and provide guerril to the anti-Communist Nicaraguans called theContras.
The Sandinistas and theContras signed a cease- fire agreement in 1988.
During the Great Railroad Strike of 1877, mobs of frustrated working class whites in San Francisco attacked Chinese immigrants, blaming them for economic hardship.
He became a dictator after seizing political power in Mexico.
In 1835, Texans rebelled against him and he led his army to destroy them.
Texans and Americans volunteered to fight for Texas after he killed the defenders of the Alamo.
Santa Anna signed a treaty recognizing Texas's independence after he was captured by the Texans.
In October 1777, General John Burgoyne defeated 5,000 British troops in a series of battles in New York, which helped convince France to join the war.
The anti- feminism movement was spearheaded by a right- wing Republican.
She was against equal rights for women and gays.
The 1925 trial of a high school teacher in Tennessee for violating a state law that prohibited the teaching of evolution was seen as the end of the fundamentalist war on Darwinism.
He was the American general who captured Mexico City during the Mexican War.
He ran as a Whig party candidate for President because of his military success.
The company dominated the mail- order industry by the end of the 19th century.
People living in rural areas and smal towns can buy products that were previously too expensive or unavailable only to city dwellers in the mail order catalog.
After President Lincoln was elected, southern states began dissolving their ties with the United States because they believed Lincoln and the Republican party were a threat to slavery.
After the first national bank's charter expired in 1816, it Stabilized the economy by creating a sound national currency, by making loans to farmers, smal manufacturers, and entrepreneurs, and by regulating the ability of state banks to issue their own paper currency.
The growth of secularism and rationalist religion spurred the growth of the Baptist and Methodist churches.
In the late 19th century, a wave of technological innovations, including iron and steel production, steam and electrical power, and telegraphic communications, spurred industrial development and urban growth.
The foundation of a federal social welfare system was laid by the creation of Social Security, as a result of an Expansive cluster of legislation proposed by President Roosevelt.
Andrew Jackson's Democratic Party and Henry Clay's Whig Party were part of the political party system in the United States.
The first two party systems were the Democratic and Republican.
Four commercial airliners were hijacked by Islamic terrorists on September 11, 2001.
Two were flown into the World Trade Center, a third into the Pentagon, and a fourth into Pennsylvania.
After the country's government wouldn't turn over Osama bin Laden, his administration assembled an international coalition to fight terrorism.
The U.S.A. Patriot Act allowed government agencies to eavesdrop on confidential conversations and try suspected terrorists in secret military courts.
The late nineteenth century movement to offer a broad array of social services in urban immigrant neighborhoods was a product of the early twentieth century.
The amendment provided for the direct election of senators rather than the traditional practice of state legislatures naming them.
The United Society of Believers in Christ's Second Appearing was founded in England by Mother Ann Lee Stanley and later established in New York.
Poor farmers who rented land to farm in exchange for a substantial share of the crop would often have their own horse or mule, tools, and line of credit with a nearby store.
Poor, mostly black farmers who would work an owner's land in return for shelter, seed, fertilizer, mules, supplies, and food, as wel as a substantial share of the crop produced.
The program was offered by Huey Long as an alternative to the New Deal.
The program would use large personal fortunes to guarantee a cash grant of $5,000 for every poor family and $2,500 for every worker.
The program promised to provide pensions, reduce working hours, and pay veterans' bonuses.
The Massachusetts federal arsenal was attacked by Daniel Shays and 1,200 armed farmers in order to get debt relief from the state legislature.
The federal income tax was authorized by a constitutional amendment.
The behavior of slaves is regulated by laws passed by a colony or state.
He won the Democratic nomination, but did not win the presidency.
He was distrusted by rural voters for being Catholic and the son of Irish immigrants.
A swashbuckling soldier of fortune with rare powers of leadership and self- promotion, he was appointed to the resident council to manage Jamestown.
In 1823, he claimed that the Angel Moroni showed him the location of several gold tablets that the Book of Mormon was written on.
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter- day Saints, or Mormons, was founded using the Book of Mormon.
They settled in Commerce to avoid persecution.
Joseph and his brother were arrested for ordering the destruction of a newspaper that opposed them.
While in jail, an anti- Mormon mob attacked the jail and killed both of them.
Charles Darwin's theory of evolutionary natural selection was used to justify class distinctions, explain poverty, and oppose government intervention in the economy.
The Christian obligation to address the social problems caused by industrialization was stressed by the Protestant movement.
The Progressive's agenda sought to solve social problems through reform and regulation.
The founding of charities was one method used to bring about social justice.
Legislation was enacted to provide federal assistance to retired workers through tax-funded pension payments and benefit payments.
The militant resistance against British control of the colonies was started by Samuel Adams.
From 1539 to 1542, a conquistador explored the west coast of Florida, western North Carolina, and along the Arkansas river.
Direct action as a means of ending segregation was championed by the civil rights organization formed by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.
Richard Nixon won the 1968 presidential election because of this strategy.
Nixon promised conservatives in the South that he would slow the enforcement of civil rights laws and appoint pro- southern justices to the Supreme Court.
Nixon fulfilled these promises as president.
During the reign of Queen Elizabeth I, the English navy defeated a Spanish fleet of 130 warships.
The epidemic of 1918 killed more than 22 million people worldwide.
He argued that human society and institutions are subject to natural selection and that society can evolve for the better.
He was against government interference with the evolution of society because it would help the "unfit" to survive.
Songs with religious messages sung by slaves help ease the strain of field labor and to voice their suffering at the hands of their masters.
Civil service replaced the fil ing of federal government jobs with people loyal to the president in the Progressive Era.
The term "unprecedented situation of stagnant economic growth and consumer price inflation occurring at the same time" was used by economists during the Nixon presidency.
The leader of the Soviet Union until his death was the Bolshevik.