As "birds of passage," political appointees have short-term professionals who serve long tenures in their positions.
The average upper-level civil servant has worked in his or her agency for over seventeen years, and expects to remain there after the president leaves office.
The career bureaucrats have time to work on their side, even though the political appointees have higher positions of authority.
When a political appointee presses for a new policy direction, the best strategy is to stall, which is easy to achieve in a bureaucratic environment.
Presidents who want to institute an innovative program are better off starting a new agency than trying to get an old one to adapt to new tasks because of the difficulty in dealing with the entrenched bureaucracy.
When President John F. Kennedy wanted to start the Peace Corps, he could have added it to any number of departments.
The problem was that either these existing agencies were not willing to accept the idea that non professional volunteers could do anything useful or that they were likely to subvert them to their own purposes.
President Kennedy was easily persuaded to have the Peace Corps set up as an independent agency, a frequent occurrence in the change-resistant world of bureaucratic politics.
Individual bureaucrats want to succeed in their jobs.
Time, bureaucratic culture, and rigid nature of bureaucratic rules are in their favor.
Congress has helped bureaucrats who wish to challenge an agency to correct a perceived wrong or injustice by passing the Whistleblower Protection Act.
The president and his political appointees have their own agendas for advancement, as do the bureaucracy.
The civil service can easily surpass them and prevail.
If you're thinking that being a bureaucrat means being chained to a desk from 8 to 5 every day and filling out endless stacks of paperwork, you're wrong.
A passionate and devoted outdoorswoman, she is a steward of the recreational trails, and a conservator of the environment.
There is nothing stuffy about her, she is also a bureaucrat.
She works for the U.S. Forest Service and is focused on trail management.
People are connected to each other.
When I was a child, they connected me to my dad and mom.
People are connected to their communities.
They connect people to their past, their present, their spiritual sense, and they connect all of us to our future.
The trails are wonderful, they're wild, and they wind through beautiful places.
It would be almost five years before they returned home again, after three years in Honduras, where they helped set up a program for underprivileged kids to spend time in the outdoors, eating healthy food, working hard and feeling valued.
After a dozen years in Alaska, they were hired by the U.S. Forest Service and are now back in Idaho.
It's easy to forget that she is a government employee, not something that fills every heart with joy and satisfaction.
The two go hand in hand.
The students that I deal with now are mostly concerned with the environment.
They see government as a way to manage public lands.
They see government as a way to get in and make a difference.
If you don't like what the government is doing, you can help change it.
We have a responsibility to contribute because we are all part of the Republic.
In any area of interest, I'm big on service.
It's about citizen advocacy and citizen stewardship to contribute to the greater good.
I believe that we have a responsibility to do that, as opposed to simply watching or criticizing.
Stewardship is enjoying the opportunities we have been given.
It's the great public lands and natural resources, clean air and healthy water, our trails and wilderness areas, our wild and scenic rivers.
We have a responsibility to take care of the resources we have and help make the right decisions for their future management.
We all have a responsibility to do something positive for our future, whatever it is, our work, our choices, how we spend our weekends, how we vote.
The big piece is that.
That is the hard part.
The bureaucracy is not an official branch of government since it falls within the executive branch, but it is still called the fourth branch of government because it wields so much power.
It can be checked by other agencies, by the executive, by Congress, by the courts, and even by the public.
The political relationships between the bureaucracy and other actors in American politics are examined in this section.
Agencies are committed to their policy areas, their rules and norms, and their own continued existence.
The agencies are competing for a limited amount of federal resources and political support.
They all want to protect themselves and their programs, and they want to grow to avoid cuts in personnel and budgets.
To appreciate the agencies' plight, we need to see it from their point of view.
The media and elected officials like to target bureaucrats.
Their budgets are reviewed by congressional committees and the president's budget department.
Agencies are compelled to work for their survival.