By the end of the decade, supremacy was emerging across the South.
The testimony of two individuals who stepped forward and took the lead in the struggles can be found here.
On February 1, 1960, Carolina, who sat down at the Woolworth's lunch counter like a lot of feelings of guilt or what-have-you suddenly, set off a wave of student sit-ins, and I felt as though I had gained my manhood.
McCain talked about how he and his friends took that momentous and how they got some respect from just step.
The person who had the most influence on a "sit-in" or "sit-down" at that time.
Let's go down to Gandhi.
Joseph and I were given permission by G. P. Putnam's Sons to use the receipts for our purchases, and Russell asked to be served coffee and Volkening as agents for the author.
He circumstances like that about ten years after the events.
There was a policeman who walked off the street in 1959 to get the vote for the blacks of the county.
By the time of the interview, McFerren had where we were seated, with his club in his hand, just sort risen in life and become a grocery-store owner and prop of knocking it in his hand, and just looking mean and erty holder, thanks, he says.
Angry whites imposed on him.
You had the feeling that he didn't know what to do in Fayette County and never made national headlines.
It was just one of many local struggles that signaled the him, but we haven't provoked enough for the beginning of a new day in the South.
John McFerren is my name.
I am forty-six years old.
When the White Citizens Council and the Ku Negro were born and raised in West Tennessee, the county Klux Klan started shootin in the tents to run us out.
West Tennessee was still a slave holdin state.
My people were brought over here and sold.
After the Civil War my people settled in West Tennessee because they couldn't buy credit.
The best thing in the world was when they ran the stores.
It made me think for myself.
This was Burton Dodson.
The mistake of the past was that the Negro was brought back after 20 years after not being taught.
Estes was the lawyer who defended him.
We both had a teacher.
I was interested in the way justice was used because he taught the Negroes to trial.
The only way to bring justice was through the county Board of Education.
They told him to keep the Civic and Welfare League.
You can't be that charter.
When you're the man for bread, we tried to support a white liberal candidate.
When L. T. Redfearn was elected sheriff, the local Democrat party refused to allow Negroes to vote.
I went to Washington for a civil-rights hearing after we brought a suit against the Democrat party.
Staying independent is the only way I could survive.
The Negro is not going back.
We (New York:Norton, 1979) talked to John Doar.
Stanley Kutler gave permission for it to be reproduced.
McCain was against lunch counter segregation.
McFerren supports the right to vote.
McCain said that he felt like a man as he voted.
We sat at that Woolworth's counter.
McCain and McFerren never met.
They posed in October and November.
McCain is aware of the figures and ideas that influenced him.
In April and May of 1963, there was a concerted effort to desegregate in Alabama.
Hundreds of people were arrested in response to the daily rallies and peaceful protests.
They used tactics such as turning fire hoses on student demonstrators and using police dogs to intimidate peaceful marchers.
President Kennedy introduced a civil rights bill in Congress in June of 1963.
We are free and we are going to take action.
The nation's imagination was captured by that.
The leading rights leaders used a tactic to marshal support for Kennedy's bill and confirm King's position.
There is no chance of getting the civil rights bill in Washington.
Thousands of volunteers were needed to sustain this broad coalition of blacks and country coordinated car pools, "freedom buses," and whites.
They could not afford to offend anyone.
"The Freedom" was written by Lewis.
Martin to Washington was not done by other people.
The public face of the march was Luther King Jr.
The Freedom Summer voter registration drive was organized by the Student Nonviolent Coordination Committee.
The struggle quickly spread, raising other issues and seeding new organizations according to the map.
The focus of the battle shifted from the courts to mass action and organization.
The Voting Rights Act was passed in 1965, after violence against the marchers in Alabama.
Georgia senator Richard Russell is a leader.
Lewis would bring about social equality and intermingling agreed, with only minutes to of the opposition, refusing to support any bill that spare before he stepped up to the podium.
Suddenly, his conflict with march organizers signaled an emerg dies piled up, one on another.
There was a white ing rift in the movement.
Few congressional votes were changed by it.
The range of perspectives and ideas at work within the civil rights struggle in the 1960s are revealed in the documents collected below.
Without making will, our spirits and hopes.
In this way labor's light of the human sacrifice involved in the direct-action toric tradition of moving forward to create vital people tactics that were so as consumers and citizens has become our own tradition.
This is not a coincidence.
Negroes are mostly working people.
Few Negro millionaires and few Negro employers exist in the American socio-economic order.
In a highly-industrialized, 20th-century civilization, fair working conditions, livable housing, old age security, hit Jim Crow precisely where it was most anachronistic, health and welfare measures, conditions in which families are dispensable, and vulnerable.
Negroes support labor's issue because it is demands and fight laws which curb labor.
The South is rapidly industrializing.
The connection between demonstration and violence is assumed.
The last analysis shows that freedom and equality are gifts to the white man.
In a demonstra tion more things are happening at more levels of human activity than the eye can see.
Writers House is the agent for the proprietor of New York, NY.
Only black people can do that.
Rustin says that ending segregation in public accommodations has not affected the "fundamental conditions" ofmunity and togetherness.
Take a look at the two photographs.
What they reveal describes.
The struggle is about.
What did white southerner and former Senate streets do to protesters?
He was known for his persuasive paign in Mississippi.
One thousand white college students from the North have the same memory.
In June 1964, Congress approved the most far-reaching civil rights law in the state's history.
The opposition was determined on the basis of race, religion, national origin, and was only about twelve.
Four civil rights workers were murdered and thirty enforcement powers were given to the U.S. attorney general.
Women were important to the black freedom movement.
There are four people protesting at the 1964 Democratic National Convention in Atlantic City.
The men are from left to right.
The first female chair of the federal Equal Employment Opportunity Commission was trained by a Yale University-trained lawyer who was also a sharecropper.
The Voting Rights Act enabled millions of people to vote in Lyndon Johnson, the Democrats' presidential no, because of the MFDP's challenge to the poll tax.
Party officials were asked about the Reconstruction era.
Only 20 percent of black citizens were registered for the convention in 1960.
The white was seated to vote and the Mississippi delegation was refused to recognize by the Democrats.
"I will have nothing to do with the polit doubling again by the early 1990's, because I was demoralized and convinced that the of black elected officials began to climb, quadrupling Democratic Party would not change," he told televi from 1,400 to 4,900 between 1970
The representation of Martin Luther in politics was almost unimaginable.
The lib for a march from Alabama to the state capital of the New Deal coalition was called by James Bevel of the SCLC.
The liberal wing of the Democratic Party protested the murder of voting rights in the 1960's.
As soon as the six hundred marchers left, they crossed over the Edmund Pettus Bridge.
Democrats embraced the civil rights move mounted state troopers attacked them with tear gas and made African American equality a corner and clubs.
The scene was shown on national television.
The day became known as the "bloody generation" between the 1960s and the 1980s.
The episode was called an American tragedy by whites and many conservative northern whites.
The liberal state and the age of libertarianism was the subject of The Modern State and the Age of Liberty.
The difference between blacks and the New Deal coalition was emphasized because it had joined working-class whites as well as black people's power to whites.
The Back to Africa movement was founded in the late 19th century by sionals and white southern segregationists in a fragile political alliance.
Black Muslims, as they were known, followed a strict code of personal behavior, and new laws do not automatically produce ties, women by their long dresses and head coverings.
In the 1960's, civil rights Black Muslims preached an apocalyptic brand of Islam, and advocates confronted a more profound issue: perhaps anticipating the day when Allah would remove the even protests were not enough.
Bayard Rustin gave the black nation justice.
About ten order to build institutional black power is how many full converts it has.
The Nation of Islam had a lot of popular leaders, such as the young SNCC activists.
The resistance of whites was the most charismatic Black Muslim.
Malcolm X is the most important objective.
He advocated violence only for self-defense, despite the fact that long marches were capable of meeting these varied requirements.
"I like communities in this period," said Malcolm X. Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, and American Indians don't believe in the same thing as African Americans, who believe in the same thing as all men.
Malcolm X had no interest in inequality from any of the different perspectives.
Strengthening asked a similar question, as crucial as legal equality the black community, he believed, represented a surer was, how much did it matter if most people of color path to freedom and equality.
If Malcolm X broke with the Nation of and political institutions in the country were run by Islam, nonwhites would be regarded as inferior.
Black leaders and representatives of other non white people began to talk of a class white communities began to wonder if it was possible to unite poor whites and blacks.
They searched for ways to build on the inspiring trip to the Middle East, where he saw Muslims achievements of the civil rights decade.
He didn't get any further.
Three black Muslims were convicted of his murder.
The secular brand of black businesses that wore dashikis in alism emerged in 1966 when SNCC and CORE honored African traditions.
Malcolm X was the leader of black nationalism in the United States.
Malcolm was a minister in the Nation of Islam for thirteen years until he broke with the Nation in 1964.
His emphasis on black pride and self-help and his constant criticism of white supremacy made him one of the freedom movement's most inspiring figures.
If alliances with whites were necessary to achieve racial justice, as King believed they were, the advocates of Black Power asked.
To help and black nationalism, those inclined toward Black Power believed that black entrepreneurs should build economic and politi small-business loans.
Black power would translate into a less dependent relationship with Power and it would be a united Black white America.
Spurred by the Black Power slogan, Americans want to reject white society.
Black Power focused on the economic disadvantage and social injustice faced by so many black people.
The War on Poverty was declared by President Johnson and his followers wore African clothing, chose natural and black organizers, and ran community job training programs.
Musi working to improve housing and health care in urban cal tastes shifted from the sounds of Motown neighborhoods as the Black Arts movement thrived.
In major cities such as Philadelphia, to the soul music of Philadelphia, Memphis, and New York, activists sought to Chicago.
The FBI began disrupting party activities.
Malcolm X was slain by the Black.
Puerto Ricans in New York were opposed to the panthers.
The Ten Point Puerto Ricans, both in the United States and Program for black liberation, were outlined in the YLO activists' manifesto.
In the late 1960s, The Panther's organization spread to other cities in the YLO because of the poor garbage collection in the city.
The housing in East Harlem, where most Puerto Ricans lived, had become squalid because of their program for children and testing for slumlords.
The Panther's are fighting to improve access to health care.
In armed self-defense resulted in violent confrontations with nationalist groups.
The Black Panther Party was founded in Oakland, California in 1966 by Bobby Seale and HueyNewton, two of the most radical organizations of the 1960s.
Its members carried weapons, advocated socialism, and fought police brutality in black communities, but they also ran into their own trouble with the law.
The party was able to reach ordinary people with programs designed for the poor.
Party members give out free hot dogs to the public in New Haven, Connecticut, in 1969.
Right: Bruno Barbey/Magnum Photos.
The yoke of European colonialism was thrown off by African nations after World War II.
The former British colony of Gold Coast achieved independence peacefully.
After bloody anticolonial wars, Algeria and Mozambique did so.
African decolonization was watched by American civil rights activists with great enthusiasm.
John Lewis said they identified with the blacks in Africa.
More than a dozen African nations gained independence in 1960, the year that student sit-ins swept across the American South.
The 1972 National Black nity consciousness was held in Gary and was attended by awakened commu leaders.
Black Power inspired the formation of a third political party.
Hatcher remembers African Americans working in the political system.
The gates decided to give the Democratic Party one more as Atlanta, Cleveland, Detroit, and Washington, D.C.
The National Black Political Agenda was issued in real votes by the Black Power in these cities.
The first black mayors of large cities in black neighborhoods, national health insurance, and community control of schools were some of the calls made by residents of Gary, Indiana, and Cleveland.
The Democrats failed to pass the National Black United States because of Cleveland.
African Americans were integrated into American political institutions despite the fact that their campaign teams registered Political Agenda.
Black elected officials had victory by the end of the century.
If Carl Stokes were to run for mayor in the eighth largest city in America, the 1990s, and blacks had led most of the nation's most, then maybe who knows.
We could become senators.
Black Power was seen as a violent political no stake in the social order by the impoverished African Americans who were shut out of white-dominated society.
The Stirred was affected by turmoil in the cities and the politics of black liberation in the 1960's.
Martin Luther Americans, white and black, had little knowledge of the rage that existed just below the surface of poverty.
Riots erupted after Congress prioritized the war in nation's cities in the mid-decade.
The Poor People's movement began in New York City in July of 1964 after a black criminal was shot in Harlem.
There is a campaign to fight economic injustice.
There were riots there for a week.
He went to Memphis, Tennessee, to support the cause after riots broke out in the city due to police brutality.
On April 4, 1968, he was assassinated by escaped convict James Earl Ray.
Thirty-four people were killed when riots broke out after King's death in the Watts section of Los Angeles.
In more than a hundred cities there is a ing out.
The civil rights movement riots of 1967, which were the most serious, helped set in motion twenty-two cities in July and August.
Jim Crow people were killed in Detroit alone, nearly all of them segregation ended, and $50 million worth of property was destroyed.
The President called in the National Guard and broke the monopoly on political power in the South.
By 1968, the fight over civil rights had begun in Vietnam, to restore order.
Johnson believed that the Civil Rights Act and a new conservatism was gaining strength and that the Democratic Party was splitting.
The Voting Rights Act helped Afrikans feel that the issue of civil rights was being taken too far by Americans.
One aide said that the riots of 1965, 1967, and 1968 were alien to Los Angeles.
Many whites blamed the violence on the leaders, but most blacks blamed it on poverty and deprivation.
Martin Luther King Jr. admitted that he had failed to take the civil rights movement to the people, such as those in the Los Angeles ghetto.
Few were appeased by his appearance.
The labor movement shaped Johnson's approach commission, headed by Illinois governor Otto Kerner, to mobilize society's disadvantaged after the riots in Detroit and Newark in 1967.
They are going to investigate the causes of the violence.
The Kerner Commission Report was a California group founded in the 1950s to promote Mexican political participation and government document about race since the Presidential civil rights movement.
The moral force cities produced was embodied by the barrios of Los Angeles and other western spiritual and ascetic Chavez.
The Black Panther wore black berets.
Rejecting the grape pickers' strike led to the UFW calling for a nationwide approach to their elders' assimilationist approach.
A number immigration policy was formed by young Chicana feminists.
Mexican Americans have been politically active since the 1940s, trying to overcome the obstacles of organized women on college campuses and in the barrios.
The Mexican bilingual education, the hiring of more Chicano teach, and the creation of Chicano studies programs began to pay off in the 1960s when students staged demonstrations to press for efforts.
Dozens of such programs were offered at with other organizations to elect Mexican American universities throughout the region, thanks to support for John F. Kennedy and worked successfully in the 1970s.
The Mexican American Legal Defense Fund and the Southwest Voter registration and American Indians were inspired by the Black Power and Education Project to fight against discrimina Chicano movements.
In the 1960s, Americans made up an increasingly powerful voting bloc.
Cesar Chavez was one of the leading Mexican American civil rights and social justice activists of the 1960s.
The United Farm Workers is a union of mostly Mexican American agricultural workers in California.
He is speaking at a rally in support of the grape boycott, an attempt by the UFW to force the nation's grape growers -- and, by extension, the larger agriculture industry -- to improve wages and working conditions and to bargain in good faith with the union.
The modern state and the age of libertyism, 1945-1980 language, tribal history, region, and degree of Alcatraz Island in San Francisco Bay proclaimed: tion into Ameri can life.
"We will purchase said Alcatraz Island for twenty-four gering unemployment rate -- ten times the national dollars in glass beads and red cloth, a precedent set by average -- and were the worst off in housing, disease the white man's purchase of said island," they said.
AIM members joined the Trail of Broken Treaties march in 1972 in an often troubling relationship with the federal government.
The spirit of protest swept Indian groups in the 1960s.
AIM activists took the head from Indian communities.
The Bureau of Indian Affairs in Washington, D.C., was the site of an attack on older Indians by young radicals.
The National Indian tribal leaders denounced them.
"For a Greater Indian America" was the slogan of the Youth Council, which promoted the idea of a single ethnic group.
South Dakota in February 1973.
The Pine Ridge Reser Power was where these groups staged escalating vation to draw attention to Indian concerns, and where young AIM activists had cultivated ties protests to draw attention to Indian concerns.
For more than two months, AIM the concerns of urban Indians, many of whom had been members occupied a small collection of buildings, sur encouraged or forced to leave reservations by the fed rounded by a cordon of FBI agents and U.S. marshals.
In 1969 members of Several gun battles left two dead, and the siege was the IAT occupied the deserted federal penitentiary on finally brought to a negotiated end.
The federal government owned the island and they wanted to force it to address longstanding grievances of native peoples.
The view along the gunwale of the boat carrying Tim Williams is shown here.
Patient work through the judicial system and erage was required in order for the government to take action on tribal issues.
The movement worked to open rights and opportunities.
It was an economic opportunity for minority populations.
The 1963 March on Washington for self-determination for minority groups was inspired by various forms of nationalism.
African Americans were able to establish the principle of legal equality, but faced a harsh Jim Crow system in the South and more difficult problems in fighting poverty in the North.
The creation of widespread economic opportunity is called segrega.
After 1966 in the Southwest and West, Americans will adopt a more nationalist Mexican Americans, Native Americans, and Americans stance.
The creation of Asian descent faced discrimination in the form of laws and practices that marginalized them.
The civil rights movement was against equal white cultural standards.
Explain the significance of each term.
You can demonstrate your understanding of the chapter's main ideas by answering these questions.
How did the tactics of "Identity" work?
Answer these questions to recognize the larger developments within and across the chapters.
Think about the century in broader terms.
Between the end of the Civil War in 1865 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, how did this photograph reveal the role that the media played?
The events discussed in this chapter can be found here.
You should ask yourself why this chapter begins and ends with these dates.
The history of the civil rights movement is much more than that.
Explain how the timing and historical context of two or three events contributed to the precise role each played in the movement as a whole.