Like New France, New Netherland flourished as a relations -- an uneasy welcome, followed by ten fur-trading enterprise.
The Dutch were afflicted by trade with the powerful sions and war, but gradually improved.
Dutch designs on Indian lands had less respect for their Indian-speaking souls and were only looking to do business.
After the Indian war, the West India Algonquian peoples took over their trading net and expanded their work, which included trading corn and wampum from Long to African Island for furs from Maine.
New France and the colony were the subject of a question from the governor.
The colony's ing hundreds of men, women, and children, as well as diverse Dutch, English, and Swedish residents, were the targets of vicious warfare waged by the Dutch to defeat the Algonquians.
The residents of New Netherland offered less brutal than the Mohawks.
Colony fell as New Netherland became New York.
By 1640, the region had attracted more than English control.
Unlike the early arrivals in Virginia and Barbados, these were not parties of young The Rise of the Iroquois male explorers looking for their fortunes or bound to labor for someone else.
Like other native groups decimated by European dis create communities like the ones they left behind, eases and warfare, but they were able to to Protestant principles, as John Calvin said.
Their numbers were small compared to the York, which dominated the region between the French and Caribbean and the Chesapeake.
Obtaining guns and goods from Dutch ratio and an organized approach to community formation merchants at Fort Orange allowed them to multiply quickly.
They distributed land terror to their neighbors.
They built a society of independent farm fami lent in response to the disease, which cut their lies.
By establishing a "holy commonwealth," they number by one-third and gave a moral aspect to American history.
The Puritans left the Church of England.
Some Puritans formed a new nation, the Wyandots, after King James I threatened to drive them out of the country.
The warriors of the Iroquois decided to remain in New England, south to the Carolinas, and north to Quebec by moving to America.
The Pilgrims dominated Indian groups along the way through the Great Lakes and Mississippi.
The map of northeastern North was changed into a civill body politick because of the Beaver Wars, which lacked a royal charter.
The French self-governing religious congregation was the model for the allied Algonquian Indians in the 16th century.
France was going to war against the Iroquois.
The last of the Five Nations spring, the Mohawks, were the last of the first migrant group to survive.
Jesuit missionaries were accepted into Five Nations and the Pilgrims' religious discipline encouraged communities as part of the peace settlement.
The local Wampanoags moved to the St. Lawrence Valley because of the smallpox epidemic, which was converted to Catholicism in 1618.
By 1640 there were 3,000 tled in mission communities.
Their descendants still live today to ensure political stability.
A new alliance with conscience.
England plunged deeper into religious would continue to be a dominant force in politics.
For generations to come, I repudiated certain of the Northeast.
The king of "popery" was accused of holding Catholic beliefs by the English Puritans.
Charles dissolved Parliament in 1629 and in 1620 English Protestants landed at a place they claimed the authority to rule by "divine right."
A decade later, a raised money through royal edicts and the sale of a larger group began to arrive just north of monopolies.
Between 1620 and 1640, forty-five thousand Puritans left England for America and the West Indies.
They created societies with deep religious identities in the New England colonies.
The three major centers of Puritanism in England are Yorkshire, East Anglia, and the West Country.
The English towns of origin were often named after American communities.
In Massachusetts Bay, settlers from Yorkshire moved their customary system of open-field agriculture to Rowley.
The Winthrop Church of England, which did not separate from the corrupt and overburdened with people, sought land for his children and a place in Christian mony and hierarchy and fled to America.
The migrants were told that they would be as a City upon a Hill.
The Puritan exodus began in 1630 with the departure of 900 migrants led by John Winthrop, a well-educated man who became the first governor of the a Hill.
The Puritans wanted a reformed Christian society that questioned the Puritans' seizure of Indian lands.
He was exiled from the colony in 1636.
They hoped to inspire religious reform of Boston by establishing the town of Providence on land throughout Christendom.
The gious dissidents settled nearby at the Massachusetts Bay Colony and the town of Boston.
The Rhode commercial agreement allows investors to pool Island with full authority to rule themselves.
To make sure that they rule by the God.
Rejecting the Hutchinson.
The wife of a merchant and mother of Colony's policy of religious tol seven, Hutchinson held weekly prayer meetings for erance, the Massachusetts Bay Colony established women and accused Boston clergymen of plac Puritanism as the state-supported religion.
Hutchinson did not believe that salvation could be Bible as a legal guide.
"Where there is no law, they earned through good deed."
God saved those who migrated to the colony, along with 10,000 others who fled.
Hutchinson had hard times in England.
Seeing the Puritans as heretical.
John Calvin inspired many that both men and women could be saved.
Only a few people were saved by women.
The Puritans could vote in church affairs.
The confidence in salvation that trates accused Hutchinson of teaching came from spiritual guidance by their ministers.
An individual was freed from the rules of the Church and found guilty of holding heretical views because of still grace.
To maintain chusetts Bay in the 1630s, the Massachusetts Bay magistrates decided on or near the God's favor.
Roger Williams, the Puritan minister in Salem, a pendent of one another, secured a charter coastal town north of Boston in 1660.
Williams was against King Charles II establishing an official religion and praising the governing colony of Connecticut.
Williams was a member of the original Puritan colony.
The Puritan triumph in England was short-lived.
Cromwell took control of the Commonwealth in 1653 after the Church of England imposed a prayer book on him.
The Scottish army invaded England in 1658 after the death of the rebel.
Hundreds of American Puritans joined the chy of bishops after the restoration of the monarchy.
England's experiment in radical Protestant power was started with Charles II on the Scots.
The parliamentary government came to an end after years of civil war.
They came to New England expecting a lot of rituals from the Church of England.
When the English Revolution failed, ministers told congregation to create a republican society in America.
Calvinism and the Atlantic republican tradition flourished in the Puritan colonies.
Puritans believed that the world was full of supernatural forces.
There were signs of God's power in blazing stars, birth defects, and other unusual events.
In 1692, the most dramatic witch-hunting happened in Salem.
Several girls accused their neighbors of bewitching them.
The accusations spun out of control when judges allowed the use ofspectral evidence at the witches' trials.
19 people were executed for being witches in Massachusetts Bay.
The conflict between Protestants and Catholics took many forms.
The Puritans tried to subordinate women in North America.
In 1690s, the early settlers of Massachusetts Bay declared that they had escaped out of the pollutions of the world and vowed to live close togither.
It is likely that land given to Massachusetts Bay and Connecticut played a role in the executions.
Widespread ownership of land did not mean that government officials discouraged legal equality of wealth or status.
"Ordained differed tions for witchcraft."
"Many influential people have degrees and orders of men," proclaimed Boston, "some to be Masters and a major intellectual movement that began around 1675 Commanders and others to be Subjects."
Town proprietors usually give large plots to men of high social status who often have strange occurrences and sudden deaths, as well as selectmen and justices of the peace.
They built their European peasants.
Nathaniel Fish was one of the poorer men in the town of Barnstable and he rejected the feudal practices of English society.
He was a voting member of the town region of pasture lands and few manors, and had no meeting, but he owned a two-room cottage, 8 acres of land, an ox, and a cow.
Fish and other farmers in the area want to live as tenants of rich people or pay taxes that are oppressive by a distant government.
The prosperity of well-to-do Boston households can be seen in this 1670 portrait of David, Joanna, and Abigail Mason.
Three people wear white linen with lace and expensive ribbons.
Eight-year-old David is dressed like a gentleman; his slashed sleeves, kid gloves, and silvertipped walking stick represent the height of English fashion.
Puritans were uneasy about finery.
The spirit of worldliness, a spirit of sensuality, was gaining strength in the younger generation.
The meeting house and town center were represented by a triangle on the town plan.
The pattern of roads andpaths in Andover suggests a hilly topography, which gave the Merrimack River a strong current and many rapids.
Puritan towns used to be small, with families living close to one another in village centers and traveling to work in the surrounding fields.
This pattern is clearly shown on the 1640 map of Wethersfield, Connecticut, a town located on the broad plains of the Connecticut River Valley.
The first settlers chose to live in the village center.
The people of eastern Massachusetts were encouraged to leave.
Many residents of the village were living on farms far away from the village center.
The selectmen who managed town affairs were from North America.
The town's representatives to the General Relations between colonists and Indians in early New Court were selected by the farmers of New England.
Fish and thousands of Indian groups lived there before Europeans arrived, and New England was bordered by the Dutch a new world of opportunity.
The region's Indian leaders created alliances for the purpose of trade and everywhere in the colonies, but there were disagreements over the legitimacy of colonial leaders' Massachusetts and Connecticut.
Conflicts erupted into violent episodes.
Because of their alliance, they show how colonial societies pressured people to side with English traders.
The killing of English trader power in July 1636 started a series of violent encounters.
When these claims werecontested, the results began to escalate until May 1637, when a could quickly turn deadly.
The hunners buried their dead in temporary raised tombs so that they could care for their spirits.
The bones of the dead were reburied in a common pit in the villages that were moved in order to find better hunting grounds.
The ceremony united living and dead clan members to strengthen the bonds of the Confederacy.
It was believed that the spirits of the dead could be released to allow them to travel to the land where the first Huron, Aataentsic, fell from the sky.
In the months that followed, the New Englanders divided their lands.
Puritans believed that they were God's chosen people.
They thought about the morality of acquiring Native American lands.
New Englanders' confidence in their enterprise was confirmed by the Pequot War.
Puritans believed that their church should accept all people.
It was hard for them to accept that Indians could be counted among the elect because of their strong emphasis on predestination.
The Puritans committed history of New England.
The painting done to convert Indians was done in the 1850s.
The story of King Philip's Vineyard was told on Martha's on a semi transparent cloth and lit from behind.
Metacom is not a community of Wampanoag Christians.
In the 19th century, whites in New England adopted fourteen Indian praying towns after John Eliot translated the Bible into Algonquian.
Indians were outnumbered by three to England in New England by the 1670s.
It's almost every day.
To the Wampanoag Indians' "burneing houses, take how did New Englanders' leader Metacom (also known as King Philip), the pros ing cattell, killing men & women religious ideas influence pects for coexistence looked dim.
The Massachusetts Bay government hired authorities to prosecute Indian warriors for violating English laws after they ran short of gun killed wandering hogs that devastated their cornfields.
The English set Metacom that the English had tlers called King Philip's War.
The war of 1675-1676 between Puritans and Native Americans is not the cause of every American war.
The English settlers believed that the Wampanoag chief Metacom was behind it.
We don't have firsthand Indian accounts of Metacom's War, but three English accounts offer different versions of events.
We knew that the English said that John Easton was the deputy governor of Rhode Island and that the Indians said that the English had hurt them.
We wanted the quarrel to be tried to prevent the war because Easton was a pacifist.
The "Relacion" was written in the best way possible, and not as dogs decide after the conflict is over.
The indians owned that fighting was the worst way to die, and the coroner inquest of the colony judged that way.
The dead Indian was referred to by a different name.
English agreed against a Christian that could read and write.
The Indians reported that they were afraid of the English cattle.
Philip and horses continued to increase.
Philip held his men in his arms.
We left without any discourtesies and were told by the governor that he was jealous.
Philip thanked the Governor for his Philip, that they intended in arms to subjugate, would do no harm.
The war began when the Indians were hung on June 8.
The Indians would kill Charles H. Lincoln if they knew about it.
The nies were tried to be subject to English control.
We sent a man to Philip because we had cause to believe that it would happen.
He called his council and agreed to come to us;Philip came himself, without a gun, and about forty of his various are the reports and theories of the causes of men armed.
We went over to speak to the war in India.
Three of them were judges.
We went to Boston to Christianize those together.
The plunder of the nearest houses proved intolerable.
While that the inhabitants had deserted on the rumor of a war, the magistrates put the laws severely but as yet offered no violence to the people, at least none in execution against the Indians, the people were killed.
The alarm was given by the other side for the purpose of provoking the numbers and hostile equipage of the Indians.
The governor had their fill of rum and brandy the same day as the express.
Some believe that vagrants and jesuitical of the towns have made it their business to march the greatest part of their French priests, who have made it their business to rendezvous at Taunton.
The enemy, who began their hostilities with plunder chief, to exasperate the Indians against the English, did not long content themselves to bring them into a confederacy, and that they were with that game.
They thirsted for English blood, and they promised supplies from France and other parts to soon broached it; killing two men in the way not far from extirpate the English nation out of the continent of Mr.
The resentment of some mind to dispossess him was drawn out by these provocations.
Prentice's troop complained of inju liberty to go out and seek the enemy in their own quarters, as Philip and his Indians had done to them.
The commission was given by God to rise against them.
For men with long hair and periwigs made of women's hair.
The causes of the war are discussed in these documents.
In 1716, Church's son Thomas wrote an account of the war based on his father's notes and recollections.
Mr. Church was working on his new farm.
There was a rumor of a war between the English and the natives.
Massachusetts and Rhode Island killed 1,000 yeomen and retained their voting rights, they were tlers, nearly 5 percent of the adult population.
Berkeley and his allies were living on borrowed time.
One quarter of the population died.
The Nipmuck peoples moved west after the Indian conflict started.
When the English invaded in 1607, they married the tribes allied to the French.
The native population of the displaced Indian peoples dwindled to 3,500 over the next century.
Europeans and French Catholics joined forces to attack Puritan enemies.
The Metacom's War did not reach 2,500.
Most Indians lived on treaty-guaranteed eliminate the presence of Native Americans in south territory along the frontier, which destroyed their and landless former servants' existence as independent peoples.
Their demands were ignored by Governor Berkeley and the planter-merchants who wanted a ready supply of tenants and laborers.
A band of Virginia militiamen murdered thirty Indians in the late 1675's after a conflict with neighboring Indians.
The way in which a land rounded a village and killed a colony of settlers highlighted the way in which five Native leaders came out to negotiate.
In addition, it dramatized the nocks retaliated by attacking outlying plantations and how ordinary colonists could challenge the right of killing three hundred whites.
A new planter elite will rule over them.
Economic and political power were used to deter Indian intrusions.
The settlers dismissed this Virginia as a useless plot by a small group of men who had amassed land, slaves, and political offices.
Many tured servants were forced to lease lands or sign new people as the leader of the rebels because it was hard to get land of their own.
To make ends meet, bacon held indentures.
The position on the governor's council made matters worse, as he was shut out of the price of tobacco until planters received only Berkeley's inner circle and differed with Berkeley on penny a pound for their crops in the 1670s.
William Berkeley was the governor of Virginia between 1642 and 1652 and was attacked by any Indians he could find.
Berkeley gave large land grants to members of his council to consolidate power.
The lands were exempt from taxation but the governor was forced to release their friends as justices of the peace and leader and hold legislative elections.
The judges have been elected.
To win support in the House of House of Burgesses, Berkeley bought off legislators with land curbed the powers of the governor and council and grants and lucrative appointments as sheriffs and tax restored voting rights to landless freemen.
When the reforms came too late, social unrest erupted.
Poor took the vote away from landless freemen, who resented years of exploitation by half the adult white men.
"Although property wealthy planters, arrogant justices of the peace, and power and sway is got into the hands of the rich, Berkeley's allies are still alive and well.
The governor took revenge against the rebels after they lost their leader, bacon, in October 1676, and seized the estates of the well-to-do rebels.
Virginia's leaders worked harder to appease their neighbors after the Rebellion.
The change made the free population less tense but made subsequent generations of Americans to a labor system based on racial exploitation.
Metacom's War reminds us that these colonies were unfinished worlds, still searching for viable foundations.
In the late 19th century, Spanish colonizers made Nathaniel Bacon a hero of the indigenous peoples of the Americas and the Andes, and a progenitor of the Confederate rebels of 1860-1865.
The Association for the Preservation of Virginia commissioned this stained-glass covery of precious metals to generate enormous wealth, window depicting bacon in dual guises, which Philip II used to defend the interests of the state.
There is a window of the Powder Magazine in a church in Europe.
One yeoman was overtaken by African slavery.
TheManifesto and Declaration were issued in new settings by 400 systems of social and economic organization armed men.
The Americas flowed to Europe, monarchies were Columb ian Exchange, and the competition among them was strengthened.
The schism between Protestants and early regions of English settlement on mainland Catholics gave rise to new force and energy in the New England region.
The adjustment to new colonies demanded political, social, and cultural stances that sparked conflict with neighboring Indians and innovations that threw Europeans, Native Americans, waves of instability within the colonies.
The internal and external crises were caused by the struggle to triggered massive ecological change through the adapt to the rigors of colonization.
Explain the significance of each term.
You can demonstrate your understanding of the chapter's main ideas by answering these questions.
Answer these questions to recognize the larger developments within and across the chapters.
There were many parallels between Native image of John Smith and Opechancanough on page American, European, and African societies on the 49.
What are the colonial American settings?
The events discussed in this chapter can be found here.
There is an interactive map feature in the Salem witchcraft trials.
You should ask yourself why this chapter begins and ends with these dates.
The colonies were largely independent of crown control and a coherent imperial vision emerged slowly.
The impact of warfare on the Americas was huge after 1689.
British, French, and Spanish colonies sought to use neighboring Indians as allies in their fight to control North American territory as wars spilled over into the area.
In the same years, Native American polities underwent dramatic changes that made them function more effectively in relation to their European neighbors.
The foundation for more intensive interactions across the Atlantic was laid by warfare, immigration, and trade.
The cultural movements they supported helped to knit together the colonies of British North America.
The population movements were part of the larger.
The growth and development of the Atlantic World, a tribute-based societies at the core of Spain's empire phrase historians use to refer to the quickening pace developed into complex multiracial societies, was dominated by Brazil.
The rise of the British Atlantic was a mining enterprise and the Dutch withdrew their phenomenon that began with the strength of energies from the Americas.
The navy's holdings are growing.
After 1660, the population of Britain's colonies grew and diversified.
Britain came to dominate the Atlantic.
The print great majority went to Jamaica, and the revolution brought a vast array of ideas into other sugar islands, but half a million found their way to the mainland.
The British Atlantic World gave rise to four critically British North America.
Enlight Non-English Europeans crossed the Atlantic in enment ideas and helped to create a large number of people.
The ethnic landscape of Britain's community of literati interested in science and rational mainland colonies was dramatically altered by 115,000 ism; it supported communities of Pietists who promoted migrants from Ireland.
Most of the immigrants to the colonies obtained access to genteel values and the finery Pennsylvania, which soon had the most ethnically needed to put them into action.
Some of the important and rise of the British Atlantic are organized in this timeline.
The demographic changes outlined by rival European empires.
Indian relations were influenced by the conflicts that came to the North American theater.
The Native American populations were devastated by the effects of the Columbian Exchange.
The rise of imperial warfare encouraged the process of "tribalization," whereby Indians regrouped into political structures -- called "tribes" by Europeans -- that could deal more effectively with their colonial neighbors and strike alliances in times of war.
Europeans used Indian allies as proxy warriors in their conflicts.
The Great War for Empire began in the North American backcountry and engaged thousands of provincial soldiers and Native American warriors.
The Treaty of Paris gave Britain control of the east of the Mississippi.