The conservative retrenchment succeeded in the short term.
Many of Europe's wealthiest and most powerful individuals could count on the support of the established church.
Conservatism and nationalism continued to stir revolutionary sentiment.
The contest between the old order and the new order was to continue into the 19th century.
The nation-state, the Enlightenment legacy of rational inquiry, and secular intellectual culture prevailed.
The old order's inability to satisfy the demands of new social classes tied to an emerging industrial economy was the reason for this outcome.
The narrow confines of a hereditary social system could not contain the material changes caused by industrial capitalism, and the doctrine of traditional religion could not contain the rapid expansion of scientific learning.
The revolutions did not complete the transformation of Western society.
A minority gained political rights.
Women did not have full political rights until the 20th century.
In revolutionary France, Democratic institutions often failed.
Slavery lasted in the Americas past the mid-1800s despite the revolutionary era's enthusiasm for individual liberty.
The birth of warfare as we know it.
A helpful discussion of the Counter Enlightenment.
Eric talks about the "underside" Hobsbawm.
The first cotton mills, built on the banks of the River Irwell in northern England, transformed from a Manchester country town into a booming industrial city.
The use of chemicals to bleach and dye the cloth and the introduction of steam engines to power the spinning and weaving machines made Manchester the most polluted city in the world.
The impact of these changes on the a marvel and a horror was what it was.
Cotton mills were built as cheaply as possible with workers' housing.
In one place, we saw a whole street following the course of a ditch, in order to have deeper cellars without the expense of excavation.
A house in this street did not escape the disease.
Dramatic innovations in themanu economy, the environ facturing, mining, transportation, and communications and equally rapid changes in society and commerce were involved in this revolution.
The firsttions of new relationships between social groups occurred in England in the 18th century.
The gap between rich and poor was widened.
Wealth and power were amassed by the people who owned and controlled the innovations.
Workers, including children, worked long hours in dangerous factories and lived crowded together in unsanitary tenements.
The effect of the Industrial Revolution around the world was very different.
The first countries to industrialize were rich and powerful.
The economic and military power of Europe stifled the beginnings of industrialization in Egypt and India.
The regions with little or no industry were easy to take advantage of.
The beginning of the disparity between the industrial and developing countries was in the early 19th century.
There are two great questions of history.
Population growth, an agricultural revolution, the expansion of trade, and an openness to innovation are some of the preconditions of this momentous event.
After 1780, the population of Europe rose at a faster rate than it did in the early 18th century.
The population of England and Wales increased from 6 million in 1688 to 9 million in 1801 and 18 million by 1851, which is the largest increase in European history.
Thanks to the new crops that originated in the Americas, population growth resulted from more widespread resistance to disease and more reliable food supplies.
People marry earlier and have more children because of job opportunities.
40 percent of the population of Britain was under the age of fifteen in the early 19th century.
The population of the United States rose from 4 million in 1791 to 9.6 million in 1820 and 31.5 million in 1860 faster than any other part of the world.
Poor peasants were forced off the land as a result of the revolution in farming.
The acceptance of the potato from South America was forcibly expelled in the 16th century.
In the cool and humid regions of Europe, potatoes yielded two or three times more food than did the wheat, rye, and oats they replaced.
It was possible to feed cattle, sources of milk and meat, with the help of turnips, legumes, and clover.
The soil was fertilized by the regrowth of cattle.
Landowners with secure titles to their land could be at risk of trying new methods.
The rich were given title to the commons that in the past had been open to everyone.
Once in control of the land, they could drain and improve the soil, breed better livestock, and introduce crop rotation.
Tenants and sharecroppers were turned into landless farm laborers.
Many moved to the cities to seek work, others became vagrants, and still others went to Canada, Australia, and the United States.
Increasing production in traditional ways was used to meet increased demand in most of Europe.
Stagecoaches could travel faster because of the improved roads.
Craftsmen were trained to make fine china, silks, and carpets by hand.
Cottage industries were used to carry out production in rural areas.
Merchants picked up the finished products after delivering raw materials.
The growth of the population and food supply was accompanied by the growth of trade.
Local trade in traditional goods and services was the majority, but a growing share came from far away.
Sugar from Caribbean slave plantations was the most profitable item in international trade during the 18th century.
People of modest means began drinking tea, coffee, and cocoa at home.
The demand for porcelain cups and other dinnerware was stimulated by these habits.
People wore clothes imported from Asia.
People in Europe and eastern North America were fascinated by technology.
The British and French governments sent expeditions to collect plants that could be grown in their colonies.
They offered prizes to anyone who could come up with a method of determining the latitude of a ship at sea so that they wouldn't end up in the wrecks that cost the lives of thousands of sailors.
Benjamin Franklin was one of the many people to experiment with electricity.
The Montgolfier brothers invented a hot-air balloon.
Eli Whitney and John Hall invented machines that could make other machines.
The productivity of manufacturing was increased by these machines.
Industrialization did not happen at the same time.
Good harvests and a booming overseas trade gave Britain a rising standard of living during the 18th century.
Britain was the world's leading exporter of tools, guns, hardware, clocks, and other craft goods.
Engineers were willing to experiment with new ideas in the mining and metal industries.
The first industries in England were in the north and west.
The cotton textile industry depended on the moist climate and fast-flowing rivers of these regions.
The British were known for their cheap imitations, but they put inventions into practice more quickly than other people.
Britain had a more fluid society before 1790.
The government employed fewer bureaucrats and political power was not as centralized.
The gentry married into merchant families.
Intermarriage among the families of town craftsmen was common.
Ancestors were important, but wealth commanded respect.
A businessman with enough money could buy a landed estate, a seat in Parliament, and the social status that accompanied them.
Great Britain had good water trans portation at a time when transportation by land was very expensive.
It had a unified internal market with no duties or tolls that goods had to pay in France.
Tin mining in Cornwall and cotton manufacturing in Lancashire are examples of regional specialization.
More people were involved in production for export and trade in Britain than in any other country.
It was active in overseas trade.
It had financial and insurance institutions that could support growing businesses and a patent system that gave inventors hope of rich rewards.
Men who became wealthy and respected for their inventions stimulated others.
In the 18th century, the economies of continental Europe were hampered by high transportation costs, misguided government regulations, and rigid social structures.
The terrain in Europe made building canals costly and difficult.
Attempts to import British techniques and organize factory production foundered due to lack of markets or management skills.
Europe was 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 Although war created opportunities for suppliers of weapons, uniforms, and horses, the interruption of trade between Britain and continental Europe slowed the spread of new techniques and discouraged businessmen from investing in factories and machinery.
The old regimes were removed by the political revolutions.
Industrialization took hold in Belgium and northern France, as businessmen traveled to Britain to observe the changes.
Thousands of Britons were setting up machines, training workers in the new methods, and starting their own businesses by the 18th century.
Euro pean governments took action because they were aware of Britain's head start.
Technical schools were created by them.
The Industrial Revolution came from population growth, increased trade, and an interest in trial investments.
Abundant coal and iron-ore deposits deter tures, transportation infrastructure, inventiveness, and society mined the concentration of industries in a swath of open to talented and entrepreneurial people.
The revolutions of 1789-1815 were in the midst of an industrial boom like that of Britain and France, which allowed for the use of iron, cotton, and steam engines.
The ten people could make up to forty-eight thousand pins in a day.
Each person making a tenth part of forty-eight ture, but one in which the division of labour has been very thousand pins, might be considered as making four thousand often taken notice of.
They would not have been able to use each machinery employed in the business if they had not been educated to it.
During the Song dynasty, China achieved the first three of these, but did not develop the steam engine or electricity.
The success of Western industrialization depended on these new forms of energy.
The wealthy could not afford Chinese porcelain before the mid-eightth century.
Middle-class people used pewter.
The poor used to eat from wooden or earthenware bowls.
Royal manufactures produced exquisite introduced into the manufacture of pottery by Josiah handmade products for the courts and aristocracy, but their products were too expensive and for mass consumption.
Europeans wanted porcelain that wouldn't ruin the flavor of hot beverages, as they gained a taste for tea, cocoa, and coffee.
Richard Arkwright created this demand.
The man in the middle is pulling wire from a post.
The wire will be straight.
The worker seated on the lower right takes the long pieces of straightened wire and cuts them into shorter lengths.
The points were put down by 4 and 7.
Other operations such as forming the wire to the proper thickness, cleaning and coating it with tin, and attaching the heads are depicted in other engravings in the same encyclopedia.
Craftsmen used to make a few plates and cups for industrialists in small pottery workshops.
Coal works were the first to pro for firing, and lead for glazing, and much of this activity took place in the area with good clay.
He invented a device to measure high industrial methods.
Discipline was instituted among his workers to prevent interruptions.
He used unskilled workers to make the molds for the potter's wheel.
The pottery was stacked.
Boulton and Watt manufactured goods after Darwin purchased a steam engine from the firm.
There was a factory in England that mass-produced cheap and beautiful china.
Thousands of pieces of china can be fired at one time in the bottle-shaped buildings.
Smoke from burning coal filled the air in pottery towns, where kilns, factories, and housing were all mixed together.
The division of labor and new machinery allowed Wedgwood to lower the cost of his products while improving their quality, and to offer his wares for sale at lower prices.
His factory employed hundreds of workers and was much larger than his competitors'.
The appli was done by hand.
Cotton was grown in China, India, and the Middle East, where it was spun and woven by hand.
Manufacturing and other wealthy Europeans liked the cloth because it was cooler, softer, and cleaner than wool.
The prohibition of the import of cotton cloth was one of the first things the industry did.
There was an opportunity for inventors to reduce costs by spinning cotton.
The spinning of cotton thread was changed by a series of inventions.
The jenny was cheap to build and easy for one person to travel to England.
Early models spun six or seven threads at once.
He installed dozens of machines in a building next to a fast-flowing river to get the who became the wealthiest necessary energy.
The mule produced a strong thread that was thin enough to make a better type of cotton cloth called the water frame.
The mule could make a machine with less thread than a human could, and at a lower cost.
The British industry was able to undersell high-quality handmade cotton cloth from India.
Between 1770 and 1790, British cotton output increased by ten spin.
Inventions were encouraged to mechanize the rest of textile manufacturing because of the boom in thread production.
The power looms were made in the 19th century.
Carding machines, chlorine bleach, and cylindrical presses were some of the inventions of the period.
The large textile mills were powered by steam engines and were able to turn raw cotton into printed cloth.
Increased productivity is one of the advantages of mechanization.
The mule of 1790 could spin a pound of cotton in three hours, and the self- acting mule required only eighty minutes.
Cotton mills often employed children to tend the spinning machines.
The number of power looms increased from 2,400 in 1813 to 500,000 by 1850.
Between 1782 and 1812, the price of cloth fell by 90 percent.
Britain's industrialization made cotton America's most valuable crop.
Most of Britain's cotton came from India.
The cotton gin was patented by Eli Whitney in 1793 and made cotton growing economical.
The invention allowed the spread of cotton farming into Georgia, then into Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana, and finally as far west as Texas.
The southern states produced a million tons of cotton a year by the late 1850s.
British craftsmen helped Ameri cans develop their own cotton industry in the 1820s.
The United States had twelve hundred cotton mills by 1840, two-thirds of them in New England.
Iron making changed during the Industrial Revolution.
Iron has been used for household items throughout Africa.
Cast iron was produced in large quantities during the Song period.
Iron was inexpensive and common in China after the Song.
Wherever iron was produced, the price of charcoal went up and the output went down.
Iron had to be heated and hammered to drive out the impurities.
Iron was a rare and valuable metal outside of China because of the high cost of skilled labor and limited wood supplies.
The metal was much cheaper to produce than charcoal-smelted iron because of the abundance of coal.
The coke-iron was removed by puddling and stirring the molten iron with long rods.
The process of turning coal into coke made it possible to produce wrought iron very cheaply.
Britain's iron was made with coke, while other countries used charcoal.
Britain's iron production increased from 17,000 tons in 1740 to 3 million tons in 1844, as much as the rest of the world.
There were many novel applications for this cheap and useful material.
There is a small coal mine.
The Severn River is being built.
The mass production of objects such as guns and hardware was made possible by cheap iron.
Iron and tools are appealing.
It took a lot of glass to fit the parts of these products.
The idea of interchangeable parts was used to reduce labor costs.
The mid-nineteenth century was when interchangeable-parts manufacturing was adopted in the manu industrial age.
The use of machinery to mass-produce consumer items was the hallmark of American industry in the next hundred years.
There have been periods of great technological inventive built the first crude but work ness and economic growth in the history of the world.
In all previous cases, the dynamism eventually fell apart.
The Industrial Revolution has accelerated.
James Watt vastly improved tions between scientists, technicians, and business people.
Fossil fuels were a source of cheap energy in the 1760s.
The first machine to turn fossil fuel into something.
Horses could pump locomotives, but deep mines were filled with water faster.
He was asked to repair the Newcomen engine.
Watt realized that the cylinder had to be heated and cooled in order for the engine to work.
The steam engine was made a work by a separate vessel into which the steam was allowed to escape after it had done its job.
Matthew Boulton was enlisted to help turn his invention into a commercial product.
Their first engines were used to pump water out of the mines.
Fuel was too expensive for Newcomen engines.
Watt invented gear, which turned the back-and-forth action of the piston into the motion of a helicopter.
The race inaugurated a regular steamship service.
The steam engines that were put on boats were inspired by Watt's engine.
The Ohio and Mississippi were gateways to the Midwest.
The Erie Canal opened Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois to European settlement in the 19th century.
Three hundred steamboats plied the Mississippi by 1830.
The United States was moving fast.
The first steam engines used so much coal that no ship could carry more than a few days' supply, making oceangoing steam-powered ships more difficult to build than river boats.
Watt rejected the idea of lighter, more powerful highpressure engines after his patent expired.
Richard Trevithick built an engine that consumed twelve times less coal than Newcomen's and three times less than Watt's, and he built several steam-powered vehicles able to travel on roads or rails.
Horses pulled heavy wagons on England's railways.
There was a contest between steam-powered locomotives and horse-drawn wagons.
Britain was swept by a railroad-building mania after that triumph.
In the late 1830s, as passenger traffic increased, entrepreneurs built lines between the major cities and small towns.
Railroads were cheaper, faster, and more comfortable than stagecoaches, and millions of people got in the habit of traveling.
Railroads were built quickly and cheaply in the United States.
By the 1840s, there were 6,000 miles of track from Boston to New York.
In the 19th century, a lot of the new track was laid to Memphis, St. Louis, and Chicago.
The Early Industrial Revolution, which took three weeks by boat and on horseback, could be made in forty-eight hours.
The railroads opened up the Midwest, turning the prairie into farms to feed the eastern United States.
The industrialization of Europe was triggered by railways.
The British railways were quickly copied by Belgium.
Construction was delayed in France and Prussia.
The iron, machinery, and construction industries were stimulated by a device.
After the battery was invented in 1800, many inventors tried to apply electricity to communication.
The five-wire telegraph was introduced in England by Charles Wheatstone and William Cooke, while the American Samuel Morse introduced a code of dots and dashes.
By the late 1840s, mechanization meant that telegraph wires were divided into simpler tasks for the United States and western Europe.
Cotton yarn was laid across the English Channel from and cloth thanks to new machines.
It was the beginning of a network that eventually connected England to France.
Power for mines, factories, ships, and railroads was provided by steam engines.