You didn't come east more than ten thousand tricents.
Caravans traveled across deserts, mountains, and grassland for more than four months.
Agricultural goods, manufactured products, and ideas were exchanged on the Silk Road.
Musicians and dancing girls traveled as well.
The Silk Road was more than just a means of bringing people together; it was also a social system.
With every expansion of territory, the wealth of temples, kings, and emperors encouraged traders to venture farther away for precious goods.
Most of the customers were wealthy elites.
The new products, agricultural and industrial processes, and foreign ideas and customs brought with them sometimes affected an entire society.
Travelers and traders rarely owned land or had political power.
They are socially isolated and secretive because any talk about markets, products, routes, and travel conditions could help their competitors.
The social systems and historical impact of exchange net works were examined in this chapter.
The publisher gave permission for it to be reproduced.
The Silk Road and the Indian Ocean maritime system show the nature of longdistance trade.
The spread of new ideas and customs was not limited to trading networks.
This chapter compares developments along trade routes with folk migration, looking at the beginnings of contact across the Sahara and the simultaneous spread of Bantu-speaking peoples within sub-Saharan Africa.
The spread of Buddhism and Christianity in Africa and Asia is examined in this chapter.
The caravan routes are from at least 1500 b.c.e.
Europeans became enamored with the idea of a trade route linking the lands of the Mediterranean with China by way of the Middle East.
Around 100 b.c.e., the first began.
Alexander the Great's empire was conquered by the Seleucid kings in the third century b.c.e.
Iran's rul nomadic leader wants to establish an independent kingdom.
They left 250 B.C.E.
The Silk Road may have been fostered by the fact that they were located on the threshold of Central Asia.
He found horse breeders who had horses that were far superior to what he had seen.
According to Chinese historians, General Zhang was the originator of overland trade with the western lands, and he personally introduced a whole garden of new plants and trees to China.
The people of the steppes were more suited for long-distance travel than the Chinese.
Many nomads followed their herds in the popula tions of Ferghana.
They provided pack animals and controlled transit across their lands, which had little to do with trade.
The Silk Road was brought about by Chinese eagerness for western products, especially horses, and the Parthian state, which had captured the flourishing markets of Mesopotamia from the Seleucids.
By 100 b.c.e., Greeks could buy Chinese silk from Parthian traders.
In prosperous Central Asian cities like Samarkand and Bukhara caravans bought and sold goods.
These cities flourished under the rule of local princes.
The General seems to have brought two plants to China.
The best fodder for horses was provided by the former.
Other new crops adopted by Chinese farmers include pistachios, walnuts, and pomegranates.
jasmine oil, oak galls, sal ammoniac, copper oxides, zinc, and precious stones were used by Chinese artisans and physicians.
The Parthian rule begins in Iran.
The Kushans ruled northern Afghanistan and Sogdiana 46 b.c.
The Romans mistakenly attributed Persian plums and Armenia plums to other eastern lands when traders went west from China.
They had spices that could not be grown in the West.
The Silk Road wouldn't have worked without pastoral nomads.
Scythians are described in the his tory of the Greek writer Herodotus in the sixth century b.c.e.
The lands to the north of the Black and Caspian Seas are where they live.
With large flocks and herds of enormous size, moving regularly and efficiently was not possible.
The homes of the Scythians were made of felt spread over a lightweight framework and were transported on four-wheeled wagons.
For another two thousand years, this custom continued in some parts of Inner Asia, the grasslands and deserts extending eastward from Central Asia to the borders of China.
The gold ornament was made in the fourth century b.c.e.
The gold ornament itself.
The Silk Road was less vulnerable to political disruption than the maritime route from the South China Sea to the Red Sea, and ships were more expensive than pack animals.
China's political centers were in the north.
Their ideal was self-sufficiency, even though they were not familiar with agriculture or unwilling to use products grown by farmers.
Women oversaw the breeding and birthing of livestock and the preparation of furs.
They used metal implements in trade to facilitate the movement of goods.
Animals and protection are provided by Scythians.
In addition to silk, agricultural products traveled both near settled areas also traded wool, leather, and horses for ways along the Silk Road.
The musicians confirm the migration of Iranian culture across the Silk Road.
The dishes decorated by the Chinese three-color glaze technique were popular in northern Iran.
As trade became more important in Central Asian life, the Iranian speaking peoples settled in trading cities and surrounding farm villages.
The Altai Mountains were home to the dominant pastoral group by the sixth century.
The people spoke different languages than the Iranians.
Turks and Iranians built stately homes decorated with brightly colored wall paintings, but the nomads continued to live in the round, portable felt huts called yurts that can still occasionally be seen in Central Asia.
The Silk Road has an impact on foreign customs and beliefs.
Military technology gives an example of the opposite phenomenon.
A loop of leather and metal was used to support the rider's big toe.
The use of stirrups gave riders greater stability in the saddle, which was probably an earlier Central Asian invention.
The armored knights who dominated the C.E.
were possible because of the stirrup.
They forged strong economic and social routes and maritime culture ties between the coastal lands of East Africa, southern Arabia, and the Persian Gulf, despite leaving few records.
Malays dominated trade.
Arab and Persian traders reached southern China while Chinese and Malay sailors traveled to East Africa.
Both harbors are large and have separate chiefs for each place.
The markets of Azania are the last of the con and can be found on the right-hand coast next to Berenice.
The unexplored ocean curves around in scattered caves in the narrow valleys where the Fish-Eaters live.
Further inland are toward the west, and running along by the regions to the south, and beyond them the Wild-flesh-Eating and Calf of Aethiopia and Libya and Africa.
The entire country of India has many rivers.
There is a market-town on theBroach below the Calf-Eaters so that the bottom can be seen.
The place has no harbor and is only reached by small boats during the flood tide.
The coast is moving toward the south.
The country inland from Barygaza is located at the end of the Berber coast.
The warlike nation of the approaching storm is above these.
Alexander changed its color.
When this happens, they all run to setting out from these parts.
Some prefer to sail to the market-towns of Laodicean and Arabian, while others prefer to sail along the coast.
This country is not subject to a King, but each market- town is gold and silver coin, on which there is a profit when exchanged by its separate chief.
From the time of Herodotus in the fifth century b.c.e., Greek writers regaled their readers with stories of marvelous voyages down the Red Sea into the Indian Ocean and around Africa from the west.
The Phoenicians are the most fearless of Mediterranean seafarers.
Beautiful maidens for the harem, fine wines, and thin cloth are bound to keep on the left side of the road when these persons come and go.
They are at their homes.
Their houses are surrounded by low walls and are exported from these places.
The walls are soft and muddy.
The towers on the Beyond Barygaza are made of wood or bamboo and the houses have a line from north to south.
The inland country back from the balconies and belvederes is made of wood and is covered with tiles.
The buildings in China are similar to the ones in the mountains, with the exception of the large serpents, and the boards used to cover them.
At different times of the year, they scatter flowers.
Some of their different customs can be found in small vessels, sailing close around the shores of the gulfs.
Their clothing is not cut or fashioned, they mostly affect east, lying out at sea toward the west is the island Palaesimundu, fresh-white garments; they esteem little those of mixed color called by the ancients Taprobane.
The men have pearls, transparent stones, and tortoiseshell.
The robes of the barbarous tribes, among which are the Cirrhadae, a women fall down to the ground, they completely cover their race of men with flattened noses.
They wear a knot of hair on their crowns, and the Bargysi, and the Horse-faces and the Long-faces, who are let the rest of their hair fall loose.
Some of the men are said to be cannibals.
When the air is cold, they wear short and close-fitting gar sailing with the ocean to the right and the shore remaining ments.
The dress and ornaments worn by the nonbeliev beyond to the left are in view.
The oppo ers are varied and mixed.
Some wear peacocks' feathers, some site this river there is an island in the ocean, some have inhabited world to the east under the rising sun, and some wear leaf or bark.
There is a great inland city called or white, not constant, and the costume is not uniform.
The silk and silk cloth are brought on foot.
The land of This is hard to get to; few men come from there.
The places he visited reflect his interests.
The passages are from his description of India.
The towns and villages have inner gates, the walls are wide and high, the streets and lanes are difficult, and the roads are winding.
For thousands of years, the regular, seasonal change of winds was waiting for an alert Greek to happen.
The story of Hippalus is similar to the Chinese story of General Zhang Jian, whose role in opening trade with Central Asia overshadowed the anonymous contributions made by the indigenous peoples.
The Chinese may have learned from the Greeks, but other people played important roles.
The ships used in the west were different from the ones used in the Indian Ocean.
The Mediter ranean sailors of the time of Alexander used square sails and long banks of oars to maneuver among the sea's many islands and small harbors, while the Indian Ocean vessels used triangular lateen sails.
The vessels were nailed together.
The Indian Ocean ships were tied together with palm fiber and caulked.
Sailing out of sight of land was not done by Mediterranean sailors.
The monsoon winds allowed Indian Ocean sailors to cover long reaches at sea.
The world of the Indian Ocean developed differently than the world of the Mediterranean Sea, where the Phoenicians and Greeks established colonies that maintained contact with their home cities.
The traders of the Indian Ocean did not retain political ties with their homelands.
They established colonies that were sometimes socially distinctive but not always independent of the local political powers.
There are records of regular trade between Mesopotamia, the islands of the Persian Gulf, and the Indus Valley.
The Mesopotamian trade references mention East Africa more than India.
About two thousand years ago, people from one of the Indonesian islands of Southeast Asia established themselves in that forested, mountainous land 6,000 miles from home.
They were not able to carry enough supplies for a direct voyage across the Indian Ocean.
No physical remains of their journeys have been found.
The sailing canoes of these people plied the seas for hundreds of years.
Bananas, yams, and other native Southeast Asian plants were cultivated by the descendants of the seafarers.
There are food crops on mainland Africa.
When scholars established the linguistic link between the two lands, the memory of their distant origins faded.
Exotic animals, wood, and ivory were produced in Africa.
The extent of African ivory exports can't be determined since ivory came from India, Mesopotamia, and North Africa.
The scrubby trees that were grown in the highlands of northern and southern Arabia were known as myrrh and frankincense.
Evidence of ancient copper mines has been found in southeastern Arabia, as well as pearls in the Persian Gulf.
More spices came from Southeast Asia, along with manufactured items, when India shipped them to China.
There were a lot of highly valued products in the Indian Ocean trading region.
The volume of trade there was lower than in the Mediterranean Sea due to the long distances and lack of islands.
The culture of the Indian Ocean ports was often isolated from the hinterlands.
The coast of the Arabian peninsula, the African side of the Red Sea, southern Iran, and northern India were mostly barren desert.
Many of the ports in these areas lacked fresh water.
The coastal plain of India is cut off from the interior of the country due to steep mountains.
There were few inland ports between the two countries.
The head of the Persian Gulf was one of the few places in the world where ship-borne trade was possible.
By contrast, eastern India, the Malay Peninsula, and Indonesia gave more hospitable shores with easier access to inland populations.
The consumer societies of the western Indian Ocean system were not primarily maritime in orientation like the Greeks and Phoenicians were.
Seaborne trade and influence seem to have been important to the earliest states of Southeast Asia.
Despite their lack of political power, small groups of seafarers in coastal areas sometimes had a significant social impact.
The families were both bilingual and bicultural.
The Indian Ocean Maritime System grew from the voyages of a history, women played a crucial though not well collection of diverse seafaring traders.
They raised their children to be more than children from inland regions because of the system's origins in early Mesopotamian trade routes.
The designa indigenous peoples want to create their own cultures.
Sub-Saharan Africa is isolated from the Mediterranean world due to the desert stretching from the Red Sea to the Atlantic Ocean.
The current dry spell in the Sahara is only about 2500 b.c.e.
Travel between a small number of grassy areas was relatively easy.
The most artistically accomplished type of Saharan art is depicted in these paintings.
The society depicted here is very similar to the society depicted in the Sahel region south of the Sahara.
Most of the great desert is made up of sand dunes, sandy plains, and exposed rock.
The northern and southern portions are separated by a mountain.
As the climate changed, the cliffs and caves of these highlands became the last places where water and grassland could be found.