The Guaman Poma were taught to cook, spin, and weave after the Spanish respect.
revolts among subject peoples in conquered territories were a source of stress.
The system of roads and runners couldn't keep up with the needs of the empire.
The average runner can cover about 50 leagues, or 175 miles, per day, but the larger the empire became, the greater the distances to be covered.
An emperor might have to make decisions on incomplete or out-of-date information if the round-trip from Cuzco to Quito took from ten to twelve days.
The empire was stretched too thin.
In 1525, the throne of the Inca Huayna Capac was taken by two of his sons.
The nobles, who often benefited from managing land and wealth for a de ceased ruler, threw their support behind Atahualpa after Huascar threatened to do away with the cult of royal mum mies.
The civil war that began in 1532 weakened the Incas.
Francisco Pizarro and 168 Spaniards who had recently entered the kingdom were encountered by Atahualpa on his way to his coro nation at Cuzco.
The Spaniards were the real victors in the kingdom.
Individual families tended to work the same plots for generations because the ayl U held specific lands for a long time.
In return for the land, every family had to provide crops for the nobles, bureau cracy, and religious personnel, and also send a person to provide a certain number of days per year of labor.
The government made an ayllu responsible for maintaining state-owned granaries, which distributed grain in times of shortage and famine.
The pattern of social and labor organization was imposed on the newly conquered indigenous peoples.
After the conquest, the Spaniards adopted the Incas' ways of organizing their economy and administration, just as the Aztecs had built on earlier cultures.
Everyone was required to marry and the state decided who should marry whom.
Men and women married in their late teens.
The bride and groom were presented with two sets of clothing, one for everyday wear and the other for festive occasions, at the wedding ceremony, which was held at a large wedding feast.
The daughters of elite families were married to the rulers of the peoples they conquered.
The marriage of common people and high ranking Inca men was usually monogamous.
The luxurious lifestyle of the great Inca nobility was made possible by the backbreaking labor of ordinary people in the fields and mines.
The curacas, royal household ser vants, public officials, and religious leaders were lesser nobles.
In the 15th century, the rulers of Cuzco ordered that al egiance be paid to them instead of the curacas, and they relocated the entire population of certain regions and disrupted clan groups, which led to resentment.
Every year, connections research on all the cultures discussed in this chapter provides new information, provoking vigorous debates among scholars.
Historians are learning to read indigenous writing systems, biologists are using more complex procedures to study genetic linkages, anthropologists are integrating information from oral histories and preserved traditions, and scholars in other disciplines are using both traditional and traditional.
The basic outlines of what most people agree happened changing as fast as they are for the Americas are not included in any other chapter.
The history of the Western Hemisphere in the centuries before 1500 is more similar to the history of the Eastern Hemisphere than it was twenty years ago.
We now know that there were large, settled agricultural communities in many parts of North and South America that traded ideas and goods with one another, and that the empire of the Andes was as rich and powerful as any in Asia, Africa, or Europe.