The Indians were destined to be ruled and set to work for Spain, he decided.
He ordered those over the age of fourteen to bring him at least a small amount of gold dust every three months.
There wasn't as much gold in the Caribbean as Columbus thought.
Many of the people who failed to supply enough gold died because their hands were cut off.
Many died from overwork or disease.
The Indians on Hispaniola disappeared during fifty years of Spanish control.
The Spanish imported enslaved Africans.
Columbus took a dozen Tainos as gifts for the king and queen when he sailed back to Spain at the end of 1492.
He promised Ferdinand and Isabel that his discoveries would provide them as much gold as they needed.
The news of Columbus's path breaking voyage spread quickly across Europe thanks to the invention of the printing press.
Columbus and his men wouldn't back down.
The legal claim to the Western Hemisphere was quickly secured by Spain.
Spain and Portugal signed a treaty with the help of the pope.
With the stroke of a pen, it divided the non- Christian world into two parts, giving most of the Western Hemisphere to Spain and Africa to Portugal.
Portugal provided most of its enslaved African laborers as Spain developed its American empire in the 16th century.
Columbus returned to the New World in 1493 with seventeen ships and 1,400 men.
Catholic priests were trying to convert the native peoples to Christianity.
Columbus was a better ship captain than a colonizer and a governor.
He was a slave trader in the New World.
Queen Isabel a was horrified when he returned to Spain with hundreds of captive Indians.
Columbus's behavior was set in motion by this incident.
The Spanish royal commissioner was sent to Hispaniola by the queen.
The corpses of six Spanish settlers were the first things he saw.
He canceled the executions and announced that he was replacing Columbus as governor.
The explorer was sent back to Spain in chains in 1500 after Columbus objected.
Columbus claimed at the end of his life that he had discovered the outlying parts of Asia.
Europe named the New World after Amerigo Vespucci, one of the greatest ironies of all time.
In 1507, a German mapmaker paid tribute to Vespucci's navigation skills by naming the New World after him.
Other expeditions were stimulated by the news of Columbus and Vespucci.
King Henry VII of England sponsored John Cabot, the first explorer to see the North American continent.
The four ships disappeared on a return voyage.
The English monarchy's preoccupation with religious strife, suppressing a massive rebellion by Irish Catholics, and conducting a war with France prevented it from following up on Cabot's discoveries for a hundred years.
The English were unaware that the first Europeans to colonize areas of North America were from the Nordic countries.
As early as the tenth century, the Norsemen landed on the rocky, fogbound shore of Greenland, a huge island off the northeast coast of North America.
They established farming settlements that were active for hundreds of years until the cold weather forced them back to Europe.
Europe was torn apart by powerful religious conflicts while explorers were crossing the Atlantic.
The Roman Catholic Church and its pope in Rome were acknowledged by all of Europe when Columbus sailed west in 1492.
A hierarchy of cardinals, bishops, priests, monks, and nuns ruled the religious empire led by the pope.
Catholics wanted to spread their faith around the world.
They were inspired, comforted, and united by spiritual concerns.
People believe in heaven and hel, devils and witches, demons and angels, magic and miracles.
European armies traveled to the Near East to fight against Islamic "infidels" who had occupied the Christian Holy Land.
On October 31, 1517, an obscure thirty- three year- old German monk sent ninety- five "theses" lambasting the "corrupt" Catholic Church, which caused the enforced unity of Catholic Europe to crack.
Luther was a man of intense con viction and personal magnetism, a true spiritual revolutionary who friars Christianity by subverting the authority of the all powerful Catholic Church.
He maintained that anyone could challenge the authority of the church if their arguments were based on biblical teaching.
A theologian builds cathedrals.
Luther was best remembered for his ninety- five thievery.
He insisted that God alone, "theses," was the catalyst for the Protestant through grace and sheer mercy.
The collision of cultures doesn't buy it.
The Bible was the sole source of Christian truth, and believers had no need for the "den of murderers"--Catholic priests, bishops, and popes.
Luther sought to revive Christianity's original faith and spirituality through the doctrine of "Protestantism".
Individuals could seek their own salvation.
He said that all Christians are priests.
They have the power to judge what is right and wrong in matters of faith on their own.
Luther wanted Christians to be their own "priests" so he created the first Bible in a German translation so everyone could read it.
The social media of the time helped spread Luther's rebellion across Europe.
There may not have been a Protestant Reformation without the new printing presses.
Lutheranism began as a religious movement, but soon became a social and political movement.
Protestants disrupted traditional notions of wealth, class, and monarchical supremacy by proclaiming that "al" are equal before God.
The ideal of limited government was due to their desire to practice a faith without papal or governmental interference.
In the German speaking states, Lutheranism quickly found enthusiastic followers.
He wouldn't follow any papal orders.
During the 1520s, Martin Luther became a cultural phenomenon, a spiritual revolutionary, a folk hero, and a political prophet, encouraging German nobles to separate themselves from the Italian papacy.
Luther was sentenced to death by the Holy Roman emperor in 1521 after he was kicked out of the Catholic Church.
Luther was hidden in a castle by a prince.
The official religion of the subjects of the Ger man prince was determined by the Treaty of Augsburg in 1555.
For a while, they got away with such policies, for most people still deferred to princes.
France, Spain, and the Italian states remained mostly Catholic while most of the northern German states became Lutheran.
The flood of Protestant rebellion flowed in directions that Luther, a theological radical but a political conservative, neither expected nor wanted.
His initial desire to reform the Catholic Church mushroomed into a religious, social, and political revolution that grew increasingly diverse and divided.
Early Protestants often disagreed over theological issues, even though they distrusted the Catholic Church.
The Anabaptists insisted on the separation of church and state because of the disputes over doctrine that spawned various Protestant sects.
The more numerous like- minded groups would be the Baptists and the Quakers, whose origins were English.
Luther condemned Protestantism's sectarians.
He wanted to reform religious life, not restructure it.
Luther sided with the princes when Ger man peasants revolted.
The rebels claimed that they were applying Luther's ideas to the social realm, but he urged the rulers to crush the "devilish" revolt.
John Calvin provided the thunder if Martin Luther was the lightning that sparked the Reformation.
Swiss Protestants challenged papal authority after Luther revolted against Catholicism.
John Calvin, a brilliant French theologian and preacher who had fled from Catholic France to Geneva, brought the city under the sway of his powerful beliefs.
Luther had started the Reformation by developing a strict way of life for Protestants.
His focus was on humanity's inherent sinfulness and utter helplessness before an all-powerful God who would decide who would be saved and who would be left to eternal damnation, regardless of their behavior.
Calvin and Luther were not the same revolutionaries as early Protestantism.
Calvin was a cool, calculating, analytical theorist who sought to create a Protestant absolutism that was devoid of all rem nants of Catholicism.
In order to convince themselves and others that God had a plan for them, believers went to the theocracy under his leadership.
Calvin came to rule with conviction.
He told the citizens to sign a confession of faith.
Calvin believed that he was God's appointed judge and jury because he was a member of the church.
He had strict control over all aspects of life.
Theatergoing, card- playing, and dancing were banned.
Informers were recruited to report wrongdoing.
Visitors to inns had to say a prayer.
Everyone was required to be in bed by nine o'clock.
joking was not allowed.
Calvin wanted the witches in Geneva to be burned, drowned, or hanged for supposedly causing an epidemic.
Fifty- eight people were put to death by Overal.
Calvin wouldn't listen to any opposition.
He wanted the civil authorities to arrest and put on trial his most prominent opponent, Michael Servetus, a Spanish theologian who went to Geneva to preach and debate Calvin.
Servetus's "heretical" views, such as denying the divinity of Christ and insistence that children could not be sinners, convinced the court to order him burned alive.
Calvin wanted Servetus to be beheaded.
Scores of people who fell short of Calvin's standards were kicked out of the city.
He ordered his stepdaughter to be jailed fornication.
Calvinism spread like wildfire across France, Scotland, and the Netherlands.
It penetrated Germany.
Calvinism was the basis for the German Reformed Church, the Dutch Reformed Church, the Presbyterians in Scot land, and the Huguenots in France.
Calvin had a greater effect on religious belief and practice in the English colonies than any other leader.
The ideological foundation for Puritan New England was formed by his belief in the necessity of theocratic government and his emphasis on humankind's essential depravity.
The Hebrew exodus from bondage in ancient Egypt was reenacted by many of the Calvinists who left England to establish colonies in North America.
John Calvin died at the age of 54.
He didn't believe that the reformation he had led had succeeded.
The stern man of God, who wanted to impose his will on a wicked world, had a surprising deathbed request: a grave.
The emergence of new "protestant" faiths was resisted by the Catholic Church, which launched a " Counter- Reformation" that addressed some of the concerns about priestly abuses raised by Luther, Calvin, and others.
In Spain, the monarchy created an "Inquisi tion" to root out Protestants and heretics.
The Society of Jesus was founded in 1534 by a Spanish soldier.
The Jesuits fanned out across Europe and the Americas as missionaries and teachers.
The appeal of Protestantism was permanently fragmented by the Reformation.
Catholics and Protes killed each other in large numbers during the 16th and 17th century.
In 1572, militant Catholics in Paris killed French Protestants.
Their bodies were dumped into the river.
There was a religious holy war between Catholic and Protestant nations in early modern Europe.
The course in England was unique.
Calvinism and English Catholicism were integrated into the Church of England.
The national government and the Catholic Church were supportive in early modern England.
People were required to attend religious services and pay taxes in order to support the church.
The church officials were supervised by the English rulers, who often ordered them to preach in support of government policies.
Political reasons were behind the English Reformation.
King Henry VIII, who ruled between 1509 and 1547, was given the title of Defenders of the Faith by the pope.
Henry was against the Catholic Church over the issue of divorce.
His marriage to Catherine of Aragon, his older brother's widow and the youngest daughter of the Spanish monarchs Ferdinand and Isabel a, produced a girl, Mary, but no boy.
Henry's obsession for a male heir convinced him that he needed a new wife, and he had fallen in love with Anne Boleyn.
He had to convince the pope to cancel his marriage to Catherine, who was against his plan.
Charles V, king of Spain and ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, had armies in control of the church in Rome.
Charles V had placed him under arrest to encourage him to make the right decision, which is why the pope refused to grant an annulment.
In 1533, Henry VIII severed England's connection with the Catholic Church.
Henry was freed to marry Anne Boleyn after the archbishop of Canterbury granted an ual ment.
Henry was excommunicated from the Catholic Church by the pope after Parliament passed an Act of Supremacy that declared the king to be the head of the Church of England.
Henry banned all Catholic "idols," required Bibles to be published in English rather than Latin, and took the land of the Catholic Church in England.
Anne Boleyn gave birth to a daughter named Elizabeth, who was not a male heir, in one of history's greatest ironies.
The king did not attend the ceremony.
He had Anne beheaded and declared Elizabeth a bastard.
Elizabeth would grow up to be a cunning and brave queen.
Edward VI was the son of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour.
Efforts to reform the Church of England were approved by Edward.
Priests were allowed to marry, church services were conducted in English, and new articles of faith were published.
Lady Jane Grey was Edward's cousin and he wanted her to succeed him.
Mary led an army that deposed Lady Jane and then beheaded her.
Queen Mary married Philip, the Holy Roman emperor and king of Spain.
She restored Catholic supremacy in England by ordering hundreds of Protestants to be burned at the stake.
The Protestant half sister of Henry VIII, "Bloody Mary", died in 1558 and Elizabeth ascended the throne at the age of twenty five.
Despite political turmoil, religious strife, economic crises, and foreign wars, Elizabeth was one of the greatest rulers in history.
The Church of England became Protestant during her long reign, but retained much of the tone and texture of Catholicism.
Spain struggled to manage its empire while trying to suppress the Protestant Reformation.
Between 1500 and 1650, some 450,000 Spaniards, 75 percent of them poor, single, unskilled men, made their way to the Western Hemisphere.
Spain shipped 200 tons of gold, 16,000 tons of silver, and untold numbers of pearls to the Western Hemisphere.
The Spanish colonized the Americas and planted Christianity in the Western Hemisphere to rule the world.
Spain entered the Americas through the Caribbean Sea.
Puerto Rico, Jamaica, and Cuba were colonized by the Spanish.
As their New World colonies grew more numerous, the monarchy created an administrative struc ture to govern them and a name to encompass them: New Spain.
The violent encounters between Spaniards and Native Americans were more than just a clash of cultures.
They had different forms of technological development.
Europeans traveled in large, heavily armed sailing vessels while the Indians used wooden canoes for water transportation.
Weapons included long steel swords, gunpowder, firearms, crossbows, and armor, as well as war horses and fighting dogs.
One Spanish soldier said horses were the most important thing in new lands.
Mexico was the site of the most dramatic European conquest of a major Indian civilization.
On February 18, 1519, Hernan Cortes, a Spanish soldier of fortune who went to the New World to get rich, not to till the soil like a peasant, sold his Cuban lands to buy ships and sup plies, then set sail for Mexico.
Nearly 600 soldiers and sailors were carried on the eleven ships of the fleet.
200 indigenous Cuban laborers, sixteen war horses, greyhound fighting dogs, and cannons were on board.
The Spanish defeated a group of people on the peninsula.
The twenty enslaved young women were given by the vanquished chieftain.
One of the girls was given the Spanish name of "Dona Marina" by the man who gave them to his captains.
She spoke both the language of the Aztecs, Nahuatl, and the language of the Mayans.
She was Cortes's mistress and later his son's mother.
After leaving Yucatan, Cortes and his ships sailed west and landed at a place called "True Cross", where they convinced the local Totomacs to join the assault against their hated rivals, the Mexica.
The best soldiers in the world were the conquistadores.
The arrival of the Spanish in Mexico is depicted in a scene in which Cortes is seated on a throne.
The Mexica Empire, which stretched from central Mexico to what is now Guatemala, was conquered by Cortes with his small army and Indian allies.
It took the army almost three months to march through the mountains to Tenochtitlan.
The stories about the Mexica capital: Tenochtitlan, were heard by the soldiers as they marched across Mexico.
It was one of the largest cities in the world with 200,000 inhabitants.
The city was laid out in a grid pattern on an island in a shallow lake with cobblestone avenues, canals and stone pyramids.
The first glimpse of the city left the conquistador speechless.
The Spanish made the most of their assets, which included superior steel swords, armor, war horses, and tens of thousands of Indian allies.
The Spanish entered Tenochtitlan peacefully through a combination of threats and deceptions.
The god of the wind and sky, Quetzalcoatl, was exiled by the emperor and he mistook Cortes for him.
The Spaniards were housed close to the palace and given gifts of gold and women.
The Spaniards were amazed by the Aztec emphasis on personal hygiene.
Within a week, Cortes took Monte zuma hostage and allowed him to continue to rule.
Many religious statues were destroyed and the ritual sacrifice of slaves was stopped.
In the spring of 1520, disgruntled Mexica priests staged a rebellion after they decided that the Spaniards were not to be trusted.
According to Spanish accounts, the Mexica stoned the emperor to death, and now scholars argue that the Spanish did it.
One account says that they poured molten gold on him.
The Spaniards were forced to leave the capital city because of the emperor's death.
More than 4,000 Aztecs died as a result of being killed by conquistadores.
The man was undaunted.
The Indians remained loyal and the Spaniards gained reinforcements from Cuba.
They blockaded Tenochtitlan for eighty- five days, cutting off its access to water and food, and allowing a smal pox epidemic to decimates the inhabitants.
Tens of thousands were covered with blisters.
There was a lot of chaos.
The siege ended in August 1521.
The support of thousands of anti- Mexica Indians and the ravages of smal pox help explain how a small force of Spaniards defeated a proud nation.
The Mexica leaders were put to death and the priests were devoured by dogs.
"For our inheritance, our city is lost and dead," a survivor wrote.
The Mexica leaders were replaced with Spanish bureaucrats and church officials.
The cathedral was ordered to be built from the stones of the destroyed palace.