ChAPTER 39 -- Part 2: Rebirth and Revolution: -- Part 5
The Cultural Revolution threatened to return China to the chaos and vulnerability of the prerevolutionary era, even though it was satisfying for advocates of continuing revolution, such as Mao.
The rank-and-file threat forced Mao to call off the campaign by late 1968.
The student and worker movements were repressed and the rank and file were brought back into line by the heads of the armed forces.
Mao's old rivals began to surface again by the early 1970s.
For the next half decade, the army and the party battled for control of the government.
The reconciliation between China and the United States in the early 1970s suggested that the pragmatists were in control of foreign policy.
After Mao's death in 1976, there was an open clash between the rival groups.
Gang of Four plotted to take control of the government, the pragmatists acted in alliance with some of the more influential military leaders.
The Gang of Four was arrested, and its supporters' attempts to foment popular insurrections were easily stopped.
After their death sentences were commuted, Jiang Qing and the members of her group were thrown out of the party and imprisoned for life.
Deng Xiaoping opened China to Western influences and capitalist development, if not yet democratic reform, after the death of Mao, as the pragmatists have been ascendant.
The achievements of the communist regime in China in the late 20th and early 21st centuries have been impressive, despite the fact that it has become fashionable to dismiss the development schemes of the communist states as misguided failures.
The communists have managed a revolutionary redistribution of the wealth of the country despite severe economic setbacks, political turmoil, and a low level of foreign assistance.
Most of China's population is better off than it was in the prerevolutionary era, despite the fact that the population is still poor.
The Chinese have a decent standard of living that is higher than any other large developing country.
Most developing nations have received foreign assistance, but the Chinese have not.
China's growth in the 21st century should be even better if the pragmatists stay in power.
The central challenge for China's leaders will be to nurture that growth and the improved living standards without a repeat of the economic inequalities, social injustice, and environmental degradation that brought about the revolution in the first place.
Environmental issues are very sensitive.
China's recent leap in industrial production and energy output has been based largely on fossil fuels, despite the excesses of the Maoist era.
China's coal is especially polluted and little of it has been "scrubbed" using the new (and expensive) technologies deployed in the Europe and North America.
One of the world's leading producers of solar, wind, and other non-fossil-fuel energy technologies is China.
If the Chinese continue to be a leader in the Green manufacturing and communications revolution, it could well recover its historic role as one of the top technological civilizations in the world.
In the second half of Chinese colonization, it was possible for the Vietnamese to liberate their homeland from Japanese, French and colonial rule.
French missionaries fell back to Vietnam after being driven from Japan by the founding of the Tokugawa shogunate.
Vietnam attracted them because its Confucian elite seemed similar to that of the Japanese and because of the wars between rival houses in the Red River valley and central Vietnam gave the missionaries the opportunity to convert.
French rulers took an interest in Vietnamese order that brought a communist regime to power because they considered themselves protectors of the Catholic missions overseas.
As the number of converts grew, the French stake in the region increased.
The death at the hands of the Tayson could have been avoided.
He got the help of the French and formed a large army.
His task of conquest was made easier by the disagreements between the leaders.
The first centuries to rule all of Vietnam and the first centuries to rule a Vietnamese politically by the French were divided by the Nguyen dynasty.
The Red River and Mekong Deltas were included in the Peasant kingdom.
The revolution in southern Vietnam began in the century or so before Gia Long came to power.