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7. The Early Republic -- Part 5
The War of 1812 revived national feelings that had dwindled after the Revolution, according to a former treasury secretary.
He wrote that the people were now more American and acted like a nation.
Politicians proposed measures to reinforce the fragile Union through capitalism and built on these feelings of nationalism.
The United States continued to expand into Indian territories with settlements in new states like Tennessee, Ohio, Mississippi, and Illinois.
The country added more than six thousand post offices.
The congressman from South Carolina called for building projects to bind the republic together with a perfect system of roads and canals.
The American System was promoted by him and other politicians, such as Kentucky's Henry Clay.
They wanted to encourage commerce between the states over trade with Europe and the West Indies.
The American System would include a new Bank of the United States to provide capital, a high protective tariffs, and a network of internal improvements to let people take American goods to market.
The projects were controversial.
Many people believed that they would increase the federal government's power at the expense of the states.
After changing his mind, he joined the opposition.
The War of 1812 reinforced Americans' sense of the nation's importance in their lives.
When the federal government did not act, the states created their own canals, roads, and banks.
The boldest declaration of America's postwar pride came in 1823.
In order to support several wars of independence in Latin America, President James Monroe gave an ultimatum to the empires of Europe.
The United States considered both North and South America off limits to new European colonization according to the Monroe Doctrine.
Some of Monroe's principles were similar to the policies of the United States.
Monroe advocated for a strong military and an aggressive foreign policy as opposed to Jefferson who cut the size of the military and ended internal taxes in his first term.
Monroe authorized the federal government to invest in canals and roads in order to shorten distances and make each part more accessible to and dependent on the other.
After the War of 1812, Republican leaders advocated for stronger government.
After the War of 1812, Monroe's election signaled the end of the Federalists.
An end to party divisions and an "era of good feelings" were predicted by some.
The War created a sense of unity among people of different colors.
The "era of good feelings" would never come.
There was continued political division.
Jacksonian Democrats would rise because of a split within the Republican Party.
Political limits were maintained along class, gender, and racial and ethnic lines.
Industrialization and the development of American capitalism required new justifications of inequality.
A lot of voices clamored to be heard and struggled to realize a social order compatible chapTER 7 with the ideals of equality and individual liberty.
The meaning of democracy was changing.
The chapter was edited by Nathaniel C. Green.
NoTES to ch a p TER 7 1.
Banneker to Jefferson on August 19, 1791.
On September 6, 1819, Thomas Jefferson met Spencer Roane.
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