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34.3 Cnidaria: Jellyfish and Other Radially Symmetric
Both sexual and asexual means are used to reproduce sponges.
There are gametes that are derived from choanocytes.
The polyp is carried by water currents to fertilize the neighboring sponges.
The zygotes develop into flagellated swimming larvae that eventually settle corals and become adults.
A bud may detach and form a new sponge in asexual reproduction.
There are few freshwater species.
hydra, box jellies, sea anemones, and corals are included in Cnidaria.
Most cnidarians have a mouth that is large enough to hold prey.
The medusae is thick and the hydrozoa is thin.
Most cnidarians have two different body forms, one with an asso layer and the other with an inner layer.
The nematocysts are located in the tentacles.
The Portuguese man-of-war uses cells that can be lethal to humans.
The aboral is attached to the surface.
As in sea anemones, polyps exist colonially.
There is a build up of limestone deposits with some species.
Huge underwater limestone deposits called coral reefs are formed.
The Barrier Reef is over 2,300 km.
List the major classes of the mollusks.
The annelids have advantages.
In Chapter 33, molecu are stimulated and muscle contraction is initiated to right the medusa.
The nematocyst is the result of when a chemical is touched or detected by another member of the cnidocil.
Small prey are passed into the mouth.
The pharynx opens to air.
In large flatworms, no cell can be too branched to distribute food to all parts of the body.
There are active preda openings.
The internal canals to the outside are used to maintain osmotic balance between the flatworm's or external parasites.
Bilateria evolve three distinctive are light-sensitive eyespots, called ocelli, as well as chemoreceptive embryonic germ layers and sensory cells that are concentrated in organs called auricles.
A pair of nerve cords running the length of the body allow rapid movement of information from one part of the body to another.
The reason for the formation of a nerve net on the ventral surface is similar to reason.
Flatworms show the beginnings of be triploblastic.
The muscles in flatworms are derived from a centralized nervous system.
The evolution of mesoderm was related to the animal kingdom.
The Turbellaria, Monogenea, Cestoda, and Trematoda are the four classes of flatworms.
They are described as acoelomates.
Turbellarians are the only free-living class of flatworms and plete, with only one opening, which serves as both a mouth and an are widespread in lakes, ponds and marine environments.
A planarian is a member of the class Turbellaria.
They don't have a mouth or a stomach.
Sexual or asexual reproduction is possible in platyhelminthes.
Most species don't fertilize their own eggs.
Flatworms can reproduce asexually by splitting into two parts and regenerating the missing fragment.
Flatworm life cycles can be complex and require two different host species, such as pigs or cattle, to begin their life cycle.
Behind the cestodes is a long ribbon of segments called proglottids, which are segments of sex organs that produce thousands of eggs.
The proglottids are always in the host's feces.
It's important to cook meat thoroughly because many tapeworms are eaten by humans.
The life cycle of trematodes is more complex than that of cestodes.
The first host is usually a mollusk, and the final host is usually a vertebrate, but sometimes a second or third intermediate host is involved.
Eggs, which are sometimes called eggs, contain encapsulated Miracidia, which can be eaten by an intermediate host, such as a snail.
The life stage of Scolex is called cercariae.
The juvenile turbellarians are brightly colored from the small intestine of the definitive host.
The life cycle tapeworm, Taenia pisiformis, is a member of the class Cestoda.
The note begins again.
Each able host is low, so trematodes produce large numbers of offspring to segment, which may be filled with eggs.
More than 200 million people worldwide are affected by beef tapeworms.
Consuming beef that is not well cooked can lead to infections in tropical Asia, Africa, and South America.
The inch-long adult flukes may live for years in human hospitalizations a year in the U.S. due to hosts, and the release of eggs may cause chronic inflammation and tapeworm infections.
Untreated schistosomiasis can lead to uncooked pork.
Monogeneans are relatively simple parasites.
Eggs are released into the air.
Eggs are produced by cercariae.
The rediae, which breaks in a snail's body, is produced by spocysts.
This figure shows the life cycle of a mammal.
The toe is not completely lined.
There is alimentary canal, a diges tive tract and anus in rotifers.
The mastax opens to their bicyle.
The water currents that propel the rotifer through the water prey are created by the corona that protrudes through the mouth.
The reproduction of rotifers is unique.
A zoecium is a colonial animal that lives for long periods of harsh conditions.
The northern lamp shell has a water supply that dries up before it develops into a new species.
The plane of symmetry is parallel to the site where the shells chiopoda have a join.
brachiopods have a ciliary feeding plane of symmetry that is parallel to the site at which the shells join.
The brachiopods have different sizes and shapes.
The bottom-dwelling species of brachiopods are referred to in Figure 33.7a.
The species of brachiopoda has been identified.
The modern rela thin extension of the coelom tives is only 0.7 cm long.
The lungs are also served by the tentacles.
They have a U-shaped ali group, as evidenced by the classification of about 35,000 fossil men spetary canal with the anus cies.
The ecologi located near the mouth is important to humans.
Outside of the lophophore, many serve as sources of food.
Inter low aquatic environments are where mollusks are found.
They look like plants.
Animals living inside an exoskel become serious pests when they are exposed to many parasites.
Bryozoans have been an important reef from Asia.
They have spread rapidly throughout the Great off periodically because of the encrustment of the boat hull.
There are about 4,500 species of bryozoans.
Thousands of fossil forms impacting native organisms have been discovered and identified, and they date back to the Paleozoic era.
The common feature of mollusks is a small area around the heart.
There is fluid under the internal organs of the sinus.
The organs and tissues are made of shells.
Most mollusks are bathed in hemolymph.
Some of the sinuses form an open blood cavity known as the hemocoel.
The shell formation is done by lophotrochozoa.
The metanephridia discharge their waste into the soil.
The anus opens into the mantle.
sperm or eggs may be discharged from the gonads if the metanephrid Protostomia colonizes freshwater and ial ducts.
mollusk shells are specialized for gas exchange.
A continuous current of structures that are produced by the mantle and continue to grow as the water grows.
New oxygen-rich water is brought in by using.
Abalone shells are often collected from gonads for jewelry.
Gametes are usually released into the water.
Sperm is directly into the female.
Internal fertilization allowed some snails to colonize land.
The body plan of a mollusk includes the foot, mantle, andVisceral mass.
The quahog clam can live for 20 years.
A chiton has a shell made up of eight plates.
The tree snail, Liguus fasciatus, has a coiled shell.
The members of the nudibranchs have lost their shell.
Bivalves are freshwater or marine mollusks whose bodies encompass about 75,000 living species, including snails, and are enclosed within a hinged shell of two valves.
The intertidal zone, an area above water at low tide and under habitats, has some species that have water at high tide.
Feeding can be done by scrapers off rock surfaces.
The shell is often absent or reduced, and forms of mollusks look more like adults than the trocophore larvae.
Most are fast swimmers.
The copper in the blood of the cephalopods is over 13 m in length and over a ton in weight.
Hemocyanin is used for transporting oxygen.
Hemocyanin gives armed with suckers and is less efficient than the cephalopod's mouth.
The blood of all the cephalopods is a blue color.
The ink sac on the foot of some cephalopods has been modified into a pig suck.
The water can be quickly drawn into the mantle and the sac can be emptied to provide a smokescreen.
In many species, the skin is backwards in a kind of jet propulsion.
Powerful muscles and a very efficient circulatory system are required for such vigorous movement in the skin.
When disturbed, the segulls can deliver oxygen and vitamins to the muscles.
3 months after observing their parent's behavior, the ability to learn by observing others has ceased.
Ital monly was observed in animals in 1992, when researchers set out to test the live in social groups.
An animal can learn by observing another's behavior.
The Bay of Naples, Italy has a laboratory setting.
One of the balls is to attack red.
The ball and fish are used to punish the demonstrator octopuses.
In 5 trials, the training is complete.
An observer may watch a demonstrator learn to swim.
If the observer sees an animal.
The observer learns from the demonstrator if it makes the same decisions.
Some trials resulted in no balls being chosen, so the average of 5 trials is not always 5.
In the same way that mammals learn from watching others,vertebrate animals can learn from watching other individuals.
A small piece likely to attack a red or white ball was used in their experiments.
The results show that one of the fish was placed behind a ball so that the octopus wouldn't see it.
A small electric shock for choosing the wrong ball was found to be a surprise by many researchers.
This type of learning is not found in other animals.
Classical conditioning is also called learning.
When they made no mistakes in five trials, they were considered to be trained.
Explain the significance of attacking the same color ball as they had observed the demon experiment on untrained and observer octopuses.
After Scotto conducted follow-up trials, it was found that the octopuses retained their learning even after a small drop.
Red, 3.88; white, 0.50 were the choices of the observers that watched the demonstrator attack the red ball.
The observers who watched the demonstrator attack the white ball made the following choices: red, 0.50; white, 3.70.
The color choices were made 5 days later.
The length of the solution is 3 m.
The percentages are as follows for the octopuses that watched a demonstrator attack a white ball.
91.1% of the organs are represented by 4.10 + 0.40.
The parts in one segment will fail, but the parts in another segment will still function.
Respiration occurs through the partition which restricts annelids to moist environments.
Sexual reproduction in annelids involves two individuals, often of different sexes, but sometimes her maphrodites, which exchange sperm via internal fertilization.
A new individual is formed when the pharynx part of the body breaks off.
There are two major groups in the Annelida.
Subpharyngeal developed eyes and powerful jaws make them a free-ranging predator.
Setae are located in close proximity to the body wall, which allows anchorage in tubes and burrows.
The worm appendages have different types.
Three types of lifestyles are apparent within this group.
Tubes, earthworms, and leeches are individual segments.
The worm is hidden in a tube in the mud or sand.
Annelids have a fluid-filled coelom that acts as a worm and is beneficial to the skeleton.
The soil is muscled due to the effects of burrows and excretion in unsegmented coelomate animals.
The process of creating burrows in the earth is minimized by the fact that the worms ingest soil and leaf tissue.
The passage of plant material and soil allows for more effective movement over solid surfaces.
gizzard is a segment that allows specialization into smaller fragments.
This material is called at the annelid's anterior end.
A worm can eat plans and produce more specialized segments.
He is pushed into the material to provide traction.
The setae are held closer to the body.
Leeches are usually found in freshwater environments.
Some annelids feed on dead or living people, while others are predatory or parasites.
Annelids have a nervous system with a pair of cerebral ganglia of segments, though septa are not pres that connect to a subpharyngeal ganglion.
leeches are parasites.
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