ChAPTER 24 -- Part 1: Africa and the Africans in the Age of
The baquaqua was purchased from northeastern Brazil by a ship captain.
Auguste Francois Biard painted a picture of the west African slave trade in order to show its cruelties.
West African merchants and soldiers are involved in supplying slaves to the european merchants and sailors.
The painting was acquired by an English person.
He went to Haiti with them.
His life was hard.
Baquaqua continued to seek ways to return to Africa even after he left the Baptist college.
Baquaqua said that the place where slave owners would be condemned in the next life was the worst place to hold a slave ship.
We don't know if Baquaqua returned to the land of his birth, but the life of this African, while singular in many aspects, represents the stories of millions of Africans in the age of the slave trade, and these make up an important part of world history.
Sub-Saharan Africa moved at its own pace even as it was pulled in new directions during the early modern centuries.
The rise of Europe and the world economy made a difference in recasting the framework of African history.
The influence of the West on Africa was an immensely powerful one, despite the fact that the strength of earlier African cultural and political traditions remained.
This chapter surpasses the chronological boundaries of the early modern period because African history had its own pace.
The influence of Islam and the West on religious conversion, political reorganization, and social change continued into the 19th century.
African history has a distinctive nature that should not prevent it from playing a role in world history.
The Americas constantly moved because of racial attitudes.
During the age of European maritime and commercial expansion, large areas of Africa were brought exclusively through the slave into the world economy and were influenced by the transformation that was trade.
Some parts of Africa were influenced in different ways.
The "Great Haiti Trek" into Natal was made because of the growing and often bitter contacts between Europeans and Africans, which linked the destiny of Africa to the broader external trends of the emerging world economy.
The diaspora of millions of Africans to the Middle East, Europe, and especially across the Atlantic to the Americas was a result of these contacts.
The slave trade after 1600 overshadowed other activities until the mid-19th century, but not all European contact with Africa was centered on the slave trade.
Slavery was a feature of the links between the continents that bordered the Atlantic.
Changing global interactions made Africans an important part of the shifting balance of world civilization, as they had a direct impact on certain areas of Africa.
The creation of slave-based societies in the Americas and the forced movement of Africans as captive laborers were major aspects of the formation of the modern world.
This forced migration was part of the international exchange of foods, diseases, animals, and ideas that marked the era and had a profound influence on the indigenous peoples in various regions.
In large areas of the Americas colonized by Euro peans where slavery was the main form of labor, African cultures became part of a complex mixture, contributing to the creation of new cultural forms.
Although much of the analysis in this chapter emphasizes the increasing linkage between Africa and the wider world, it should be made clear that many fundamental processes of African development continued throughout this period.
Most of Africa was free of political control, and most cultural development was as well.
Africa and Latin America differed greatly from one another during the early modern centuries.
The sub-Saharan region was affected by a variety of trends.
In many places in Africa, as in Europe, independent states continued to form and expand, perhaps as a result of a population expansion that followed the spread of iron tools and improved agriculture.
Kingdoms are spreading to new areas.
Europeans and the rise of the Atlantic slave trade affected the long-term developments.
The growth of large kingdoms through much of the subcontinent was the dominant theme of the period and slavery was one of its by-products.
European demand is seen as a major impulse in political expansion.
The impact of slavery and the slave trade on Africans is the focus of this chapter, because our focus in a world history is not simply the geographic region of Africa but on the Africans who were swept into the expanding international economy.
Before 1800, at least twice as many Africans crossed the Atlantic than Europeans, and so they were fundamental to the creation of the Atlantic system.
The Portuguese were owed control of these forts.
Most forts were established with the consent of the local rulers, who benefited from access to European commodities and sometimes from the military support of the Portuguese resident merchants.
ivory, pepper, animal skins, and gold were given to the Portuguese.
The Portuguese were able to add specialized items to the existing African trade routes due to their ability to penetrate the existing African trade routes.
The small states of the Senegambian coast tried to Christianize all of the Portuguese who were suspicious of Muslims.
Similar responses were also given by other large African states.
The rulers of Kongo and other African kingdoms were converted.
In Kongo, members of the royal family were converted.
Attempts were made to Europeanize the kingdom.
Mvemba wants to end the slave trade.
Africans were seen as Portugese explorers ages and pagans but also as capable of civilized behavior and conversion to Christianity by the Portuguese.