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27 -- Part 10: Nation Building in the Americas
Population shortage was a problem through the 19th century.
Australia was unable to compete with North America in its quest for British immigrants.
It took too long to get to Australia and it was too expensive.
Immigrants were offered free pas sage by the government to reduce financial disincen tives.
British immigrants went to North America and Australia in the 19th century.
The opening of the interior of Australia in the early 19th century was due to the growth of sheep farming.
Some of the advertising was aimed at children.
The life of a family moving from Britain to Australia is depicted in a wooden puzzle.
The discovery of gold in Victoria tripled the num ber in a few years.
The gold rush improved transportation in Australia.
British investors funded the construction of the railroad in the 1870s and by 1890 nine thousand miles of track had been laid.
Agricultural production was stimulated by the improved transportation offered by railways.
Financial backing for educational and cultural institutions was provided by the gold rush.
In the thirty years that followed, public libraries, museums, art gal eries, and universities opened.
In keeping with the overwhelmingly British ethnic origin of most immigrants to Australia, these institutions have a distinctly British culture.
The large number of Asians in the goldfields caused bitter racial prejudice.
Nonwhites were called "colored peoples" in Australia because they were more adapted to the warm climate than the British.
They proved that the country's economic development happened in the 19th century.
The Chinese built the railroads and ran the market gardens near the towns.
The Filipinos and Pacific Islanders worked in the fields.
The carrying trade is controlled by Afghanis and their camels.
Fear that colored labor would lower living standards and undermine Australia's British culture prevailed.
The "white Australia policy" was established after the Common wealth Immigration Restriction Act of 1901 closed immigration to Asians.
The Australian Colonies Government Act was passed by the British Parliament in 1850 and allowed the four most populous colonies to establish their own governments.
One colony was self-governing.
The provincial parliament of South Australia was the most democratic in the world in that it was elected by universal manhood and secret ballot.
The secret ballot was adopted by other nies.
One of the first countries to give women the vote was Australia.
On January 1, 1901, the Commonwealth of Australia came into existence.
The new countries of the Americas and Australia had a lot in common.
All of them were European colonies.
The populations suffered from the arrival of Europeans.
The nine teenth century was a time of nation building and self-rule for all of them.
English, French,Span ish, and Portuguese became the languages of government after independence.
They all became connected to the rest of the world through global trade by the end of the 19th century.
They all felt that nationalism was a global current that meant mass identification with the country rather than with an ancient people and its language.
Many had imported slaves from Africa, and at one time or another Al owed or encouraged immi gration.
Discrimination on the basis of race and ethnic origin was pervasive.
The countries covered in this chapter were very different by 1914.
The economies of most of the other countries were mostly agricultural and the United States was one of the richest countries in the world.
The three English-speaking countries had strong democratic traditions, but most of the countries of Latin America were ruled by narrow elites or military strongmen.
Argentina, with its temper ate climate, fertile prairies, and large influx of European immigrants approached the pros perity of the United States, Canada, or Australia.
The three countries that began as British colonies ended up being stable democracies.
The political culture of each of the new states was shaped by the British government.
The citizens were used to elections and local self-government by the time they achieved independence.
That wasn't true of any of the former Spanish colonies.
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