Toleration to Jews and Christians was offered by the Saracens, who were determined to drive out paganism and convert everyone to their faith.
Most Christians in the conquered territories embraced Islam within a few generations.
The legal and social advantages of becoming a Muslim were appealing to many Christians.
The lands that fell to the Arabs are still lands of the mosque.
Muhammad insisted that he was the greatest of Allah's prophets, even though he never claimed divinity for himself.
He set his revelations in the context of Judaism and Christianity, identifying Allah with Yahweh and accepting the line of Jewish prophets from Abraham through Jesus.
His position with respect to Christianity and Judaism was similar to that of Jesus.
Most of the Koran praises and describes Allah, who is the supreme reality, all-knowing and all-powerful.
The Prophet said that the true believer must submit to Allah's will.
Islam did not raise any questions about the nature or persons of the godhead.
There were no arguments over what constituted the sacred canon.
The only authorized version of the Koran is the one written in Arabic after Muhammad's death.
Millions have memorised it because it is a poetic book, which is shorter than the New Testament.
The Koran is the most read book in the world, even though Muslims are outnumbered by Christians two to one.
It is a guide to morality, legislation, and science and serves as a record of divine inspiration.
The model life that the Prophet described is within the reach of the faithful because of his practical c hapter 5.
He did not insist on self-denial beyond the powers of most people.
He didn't see any virtue in sexual abstinence.
He tried to moderate the practice of polygamy.
The Arabs had a chronic shortage of men due to their tribal feuds.
One way of providing security for the surplus females was to allow each male to take several wives.
The Prophet said that a man should have no more than four wives at a time.
There was no limit on the number of concubines a man might have.
The absence of a formal priest hood appealed to many.
In Catholic Christianity, there are no saints who help humans and God.
Because there are no priests, there are no mysterious rites that can be performed.
Statues and images are not allowed in Muslim art to increase the worshiper's concentration on Allah.
The mosque does not have anything that resembles an idol.
Muslims felt that their faith was more democratic than Christianity because of all this.
They hated the Christians because they were addicted to wrangling over doctrine and worship three or more divine figures.
The Five Pillars of Faith are stated in the Koran.
The convert is initiated into the faith by accepting and repeating these words.
The Sec ond is responsible for daily prayer at dawn, midday, afternoon, and nightfall.
From atop slender minarets, the muezzins call upon the faithful to bow down and say the prayer in Arabic.
The formula is repeated many times.
All adult males are required to attend the midday prayer on Fridays, which is closed to females.
Inside the mosque, standing in self-ordered rows, the congregation prays aloud in unison; then the leader delivers a brief sermon.
Normal everyday activities can be resumed after the service.
Giving to the poor is the third duty.
The act of charity was first practiced as an indi vidual act.
The money collected in the Islamic states was used to help the needy and to build and maintain mosques.
The amount was equal to the individual's income.
The Koran was given to the archangel Gabriel.
Between sunrise and sunset, no food or drink can be taken.
Fasting, which was not practiced by the Arabs before Muhammad, was adopted from Jewish and Christian custom.
Every Muslim who can afford it must make a pilgrimage to the Holy City of Mecca at some point in his or her life.
This practice has had a unifying effect on people who embrace Islam.
The Holy City is home to rich and poor, black and white, Eastern and Western.
The first conquests of the Arabs were sparked by this requirement.
True believers must seek to do the will of Allah revealed in the Koran.
Muhammad had vivid descriptions of hell and heaven.
Unbelievers will burn forever in a great pool of fire, while believers who die in sin will suffer there for a while.
The pleasures of paradise will be enjoyed by Muslims who have accepted Allah.
Paradise is pictured as an oasis of delight, with sparkling beverages, luscious fruits, and dark-eyed beauty.
Despite the simplicity of Muhammad's teachings, they were open to differing interpretations as the years went by.
There were disagreements over the proper way of life for Muslims and the principle of succession to the caliphate.
The Muslim world is still disturbed by the division between the Sunnites and the Shiites.
The Umayyad dynasty moved the capital of Islam from Medina to Damascus in Syria after seizing the caliphate in 661.
They accepted traditions that had grown up outside the Koran.
The Shiites insisted that only descendants of the Prophet could become caliphs, and they held strictly to the Koran.
The empire broke up after the eighth century.
The Umayyad family moved to Spain after being ousted from Baghdad.
A descendant of Muhammad's daughter Fatima declared himself an independent caliph in control of Egypt, Syria, and Morocco.
The Abbasid ruler ruled the area surrounding Baghdad until 1000.
Muslim civilization reached its height in the ninth and tenth centuries.
The revival of the Middle Eastern world was brought about by the unifying faith, the common Arabic language, and the relative stability that the conquerors provided.
The creation of europe: politic al and social foundations traditions are some of the Islamic achievements of this period.
There was a new civilization which replaced Greece as the internationally dominant culture of northeastern Africa and the Middle East, as well as of the vastly larger area to which Islam eventually spread.
The rise of Islam was important for European peoples who remained Christian as for those of Africa and Asia who became Muslims.
The Islamization of North Africa and the Middle East meant that most of the Greco-Roman civilization was moved to Europe.
The Christian European nations lived on the fringes of an intercontinental civilization that was more advanced than their own.
Islam was a world larger than the Roman Empire before it, one that stretched from western Africa all the way across the Eastern Hemisphere to the Pacific, and it included lands far wealthier, with far older and deeper cultural traditions, than western Europe.
Islam was a formidable foe for Christian Europe.
Islam and Christendom fought bitter wars for a thousand years.
European states like the Frankish kingdom and Byzantium devoted a lot of their energy to the endless conflict in the medieval European society.
Europe benefited from Islam being a neighbor.
Trade, inventions, fashions, pastimes, scholarly and scientific discoveries all spread quickly across the world of Islam.
Europe was able to advance during the Middle Ages due to the fact that it was part of a group of civilizations that stretched across the Eastern Hemisphere and China.
The list of Islam's advances to Europe begins with long distance commerce.
Arab traders traveled between Spain and western Africa and between the Middle East, China, and the East Indies in order to bring exotic goods to Europe.
Arabic numerals, an innovation that freed mathematicians from the awkward Roman system, came to Europe by way of Islam.
There were many branches of learning that were advanced by the Muslims, with the results that came to be known in Europe.
Notable steps were taken by the Muslims in medicine.
Hippocrates and Galen are ancient Greek physicians who were translated into Arabic.
The ancient Greeks had many scientific and philosophical writings.
Arabic translations of writers such as Ptolemy were commissioned by Enlightened rulers.
At Cairo, Toledo, and Palermo, great centers of learning sprang up, where scholars studied these works, developed them further, and related them to Muhammad's religious teachings.
European scholars traveled to Spain and Sicily to get access to this Arab learning.
Christians of the West seized on the rich intellectual deposit and made their own.
Many of the treasures of Greek learning that had been lost for centuries were recovered through Arabic translations into Latin.
Western artisans and builders were impressed by what they found in Muslim countries.
In the tenth century, when most of Christian Europe was busy trying to fend off attacks, Muslim Spain was enjoying a lot of prosperity.
The largest city of Europe after Constantinople boasted magnificent mosques and palaces, public baths, colleges, libraries, and private homes.
Leather, textiles, and armor were famous.
The rulers gave generously to scholars, poets, and musicians.
The Muslim architecture was a blend of Persian and Mediterranean styles and was influenced by the Roman dome and arch, which were taken up by European architects to create the Gothic style.
The walls were decorated with marble, precious stones, and glazed tiles.
Geometric and floral designs were the main designs used in painting and carving.
The literary forms included prose for history, philosophy, and religion.
The charming poems of the Persian Omar Khayyam, a mathematician and astronomer of the twelfth century, are popular.
There are few illusions about the universe.
He accepts, yet protests, both fate and death.
One's life was part of a caravan that traveled from nothingness to nothingness.
It's important to plunge into the pleasures of the present.
The bird is in the air.
While Byzantium was struggling to remain the most powerful Christian state in the East, its western counterpart, the kingdom of the Franks, was seemingly falling apart as its kings lost power to competing factions.
The triumph of one noble family in the continual struggles for power finally put an end to this situation.
The Carolingians used their power to spread Christian and Roman civilization throughout much of western and central Europe.
The Carolingian rulers were powerless in their turn, but their achievements continued.
The rise of western Europe was started by them.
They established a hereditary claim on the office and restored unity to the kingdom.
Charles Martel was the grandfather of Charlemagne.
Charles was able to crush the opposition of his rivals and take control of the kingdom.
With the legal ruler pushing ever more into the background, the actual ruler turned to reconstruction.
Charles Martel was faced with a historic challenge when the Frankish kingdom was invaded by the Saracens.
The abbey of Saint Martin of Tours was the richest in the country and they found the richest treasure in the treasuries of churches and monasteries.
A defense force was commanded by Charles Martel and consisted of foot soldiers.
Charles maneuvered the cavalry into launching an attack on the fort, even though it had superior mobility and power.
The raiders decided to go back to Spain.
Charles was determined to build up a large force of heavy cavalry in order to oppose the attacks.
Light cavalry forces were armed with bows and arrows, but this type of horsemen wore body armor and wielded close-quarters weapons.
There were heavy cavalry among the horse-riding peoples of the steppes.
The Persians and Romans used them against each other in many Middle Eastern wars.
The iron foot hanging from the saddle made heavy cavalry fighting easier as they gave horsemen a more stable platform from which to wield their weapons.
The ruler of the most powerful kingdom in western Europe decided to equip his forces with heavy cavalry in order to fight in this way.
Heavy cavalrymen needed armor and horses.
It took a large amount of land to provide for just one horseman, and Charles needed thousands of them.
He needed to find some land to maintain a heavy cavalry army.
The Church caught his attention.
Bishoprics and monasteries are now held from a third to a half of the land in the realm.
He distributed Church properties as military grants to noble warriors after the Church leaders refused to give him the land he wanted.
Each warrior was bound to provide a body of armed cavalry when called upon.
The basis of the "feudal compact" was laid there.
The use of land was exchanged for military equipment.
As long as land remained the main source of wealth, landholding would be closely associated with the knights.
It wasn't easy to take the crown from the descendants.
They were the rightful possessors of the kingship, and all the powerful men of the kingdom had sworn loyalty to them.
Before deposing the reigning monarch, Pepin tried to get the Frankish bishops over to his side.
The bishops were angry over Charles Martel's seizure of Church lands and didn't want to support his son.
They went over their heads and appealed to Rome.
The deposition was approved by the pope.
The monk, missionary, and saint, Archbishop Boniface of Fulda, was close to both himself and the pope and crowned and anointedPepin.
This was the first time in the history of the Frankish kingdom that a king inaugurated his reign with a religious ceremony.
The ceremony was patterned after the consecration of the kings in the Old Testament.
Against the legitimacy of the descendants,Pepin claimed a special holiness and authority from God.
The normal ceremony for inaugurating kings in Europe was clerical coronation and anointing.
The idea that the power of kings came from God, strengthened royal power for many centuries to come, was always emphasized by the popes.
It wasPepin who did the pope a favor.
The popes of Rome were deprived of their power as the Lombard kings pushed southward.
Stephen II might have appealed to Constantinople for aid because the Byzantine emperors still claimed Italy.
The rivalry between the Latin and Greek churches had strained relations between the East and West.
Stephen turned toPepin for protection.
In 754, Stephen traveled to the Frankish court and reanointed the king.
The States of the Church became a political entity because of the Donation of Pepin.
The papacy justified its right to govern this territory with a much bolder claim.
The papal court produced a signed document as proof of the claim.
The Donation of Constantine made the pope the superior of all the other bishops and the emperor himself.
The document was shown to be a forgery in the fifteenth century, but it served to advance the ambitions of the papacy.
The Donation of Pepin sealed the alliance between the papacy and the Frankish state, the two strongest forces in the West.
The empire of Charles the Great was the result of this alliance.
His empire was twice the size of Byzantium.
The balance of power within Christendom did not swing back to the East after his death.
He contributed to the evolution of western Europe through the force of his personality and the challenges of a long reign.
Charles was proud of his German heritage.
Though he knew Latin, Karl preferred to speak in his native Frankish tongue.
He is usually referred to in English by the French name that first appeared more than a century later: Charles the Great.
He was almost always at war.
He fought not only for territory and spoils but also for what he considered the higher goals of Christianity and universal order.
He expanded the boundaries of Christianity and Frankish power by military force.
The statuette depicts either Charles or his grandfather Charlemagne.
The rider is wearing a crown and carrying Christian symbols.
The rider's harness does not include stirrups, so it was made separately.
The Frankish empire's claim to power is expressed by the combination of older Roman and newer Christian symbolism.
After the pope told him that the Lombards were threatening papal territory, he led his armies into Italy and broke the Lombard power.
The hardest campaigns were against the Saxons.
They were not like the Saxons in England.
The Church encouraged Charlemagne to transform the Saxons into Christian subjects.
He succeeded, but only after massacring many captives and relocating thousands of families in other parts of his empire.
The Frankish clergy established bishoprics and monasteries after the Saxons accepted Christianity.
In the sixth century, the nomadic nation of the Avars invaded central and eastern Europe.
The defeat of the Avars caused most of them to retreat and dispersed, but they left behind the Slavic tribes who had accompanied them on their conquests.
All along its eastern frontier, from the North March to the East March, Charlemagne's empire confronted Slavic peoples, whether as enemies to be conquered or as neighbors to be influenced and converted.
The mark that separated the Saxons from their neighbors, the Danes, eventually became the Christian kingdom ofDenmark.
The Spanish March was built as a wall against the Muslims.
Christianity expanded into the kingdoms of Aragon and Castile.
He was concerned with domestic and military matters.
The Church was accepted by all of his subjects and he worked to strengthen its leadership and activities.
He believed that he had to act as the head of the Church because he was a Christian in private life.
He assumed that the Byzantine emperors had the same attitude towards the Greek Church as he had towards the religious structure of his royal administration.
He treated the bishops and abbots like agents of his government and gave them copies of his imperial decree.
There was no uniform legal code for his vast territories, leaving the various peoples to govern themselves according to their own laws.
The role played by his counts was one of the regular features of his government.
He presided over a court that met once a month, collected fines, and in time of war, assembled the knights of his county for military action.
The local landed nobility selected the counts and dukes.
The king appointed royal inspectors to check on the honesty and efficiency of the officials.
They traveled in pairs and investigated the performance of the counts and dukes.
He succeeded in holding his empire together by acting vigorously in response to this intelligence.
The king kept most of his revenue from the crown lands because there was no general system of taxation.
He was interested in the efficiency with which his properties were managed, and he prepared detailed instructions for the guidance of his royal stewards.
The capital of Charlemagne was located in the heart of the ancient Frankish territories.
This shows the slow recovery of the West.
The church of San Vitale is a Byzantine outpost on Italy's east coast.
When he first saw San Vitale, the king ordered his builders to duplicate the plan in his own capital.
The art of Constantinople made its way to the Frankish heartland.
The chapel was built in the capital of Charlemagne in the west of Germany.
The designer was a Frankish architect, who had a lot of knowledge and skills.
A monument to the dream of a revived Roman Empire was believed to be underneath the center of the building.
He was concerned about the low level of education and scholarship in his realm and issued a decree instructing the bishops and abbots to improve the training of the clergy.
The palace school he set up in Aachen became a center of intellectual activity.
Alcuin was the leading scholar of his day and he was the head of the school.
The cathedral school of York is the finest in England.
Alcuin brought back the monastic tradition of reproducing ancient manuscripts by training a staff of expert scribes.
His main contribution to Western culture was this.
Most of the ancient Latin literary works that we possess have come down to us from Carolingian copies, carefully preserved in monastic libraries, and the easy to read handwritten letters designed by the Carolingian scribes.
A course of studies was established for selected young men of the Frankish nobility.
The faculty of the school was made up of scholars from all over Europe.
In other intellectual centers of Germany and France, many of their pupils became outstanding teachers.
The "Carolingian Renaissance" of the arts and scholarship provided a lasting spark to the cultural development of Europe.
The event took place while the Frankish king was in Rome for a Mass.
According to his biographer, Einhard, Pope Leo III placed the crown on his head without warning and pronounced him emperor.
The pope had his own reasons.
There was a chance that the Franks themselves might prove dangerous, but he still needed a strong protection in Italy.
The pope succeeded in defining the relationship between the Church and the Western empire by taking the initiative in 800.
Popes would overthrow emperors if they made this claim.
There is no evidence that Charlemagne was upset by the circumstances of his crown ing.
There had been close ties between the Franks and the papacy.
They worked together to reestablish order and spread the faith.
The fact that the Frankish state claimed to be a restored version of the Roman Empire demonstrates the historical force of an idea.
Even though the restored empire had a very different structure than the old one, it was proclaimed at the first sign of its becoming a reality.
North Africa, Sicily, Spain, and Britain were not included because they had never been controlled by Rome.
There was no unified law, no professional civil service, and no standing army in Charlemagne's territories.
The roads had fallen into disrepair and there were few cities.
The agencies of the Church could not make up for the lack of political institutions because Christianity was the main unifying force.
The empire was held together by his personality.
The empire fell apart after his death, leaving a fiction of unity and an ideal.