ChAPTER 39 -- Part 1: Rebirth and Revolution: -- Part 1
At the height of the Cultural revolution in Beijing in the mid-1960s, there was a photo of a mass demonstration in front of the gate ofHeavenly Peace that showed both the participants' adulation of Mao and their capacity to intimidate his political rivals.
During the Cultural revolution of 1967, the assault on doctors, government officials, scientists, and technicians expanded to include red guards and other political groups who were proclaiming their loyalty to Chairman Mao.
The Soviet union distanced itself from China in the early 1960s.
Russia was seen as a threat to the People's republic by the end of the decade.
The campaign of vilification against his father was largely due to his romantic ties with Yun.
His family took the couple's love letters and passed them on to the government.
The fervor of the Cultural revolution had begun to fade when Yun was released from prison in 1974.
He died of a lung disease that was probably contracted during his imprisonment, and his experiences in prison left him mentally unbalanced.
During the post-World War II era, the turmoil and uncertainty of the life of the man was the main theme in much of east and southeast Asia.
The Pacific war devastated societies in both regions.
Most of Japan's cities were destroyed and its islands were occupied by the U.S. military.
China, Vietnam, and Korea were involved in civil wars that lasted for decades in Korea and Vietnam.
The long civil war in China was decided by the victory of the Communists in 1949.
By the late 1950s and 1960s, the persecution of the regime's perceived enemies would continue and would spread to loyal supporters of the revolution.
Their Hong Kong, Taiwan, typified by rapid economic successes and political stability, as well as some of the challenges they have posed in recent growth rates, expanding exports, decades for older developing societies, such as the United States, will be considered in the following and industrialization.
Vietnam and China had begun to recover from foreign occupations, civil unrest, and revolutionary turmoil by the 1980s.
China in particular has emerged as a values, with considerable reliance on a global economic power, and Vietnam has opened its tightly controlled society to the outside world.
The nations of east Asia and the Pacific Rim have become major economic, limitations on dissent and instability.
Although retaining some military bases, the United States pledged to grant independence quickly after regaining the Philippines.
Taiwan was a separate republic.
Japan in 1945 was a mess.
New contacts and alignments were created by its and political systems.
The American occupation government worked to destroy Japan's wartime political structure by establishing the republic of China in 1948.
Japan's military forces were dissolved, with the aid of the united States, and police were quickly replaced.
The parliament was made the supreme government body in the new constitution.
Civil liberties, along with gender equality in marriage and collective bargaining rights, were guaranteed.
Japan became a major nation because military forces with war potential were abolished.
The emperor was a symbolic figurehead, without political power or Shinto claims.
Japan inserted its own values into the new constitution even though it accepted many Western concepts.
Many of the Japanese people became opponents of military revival because of the new constitutional measures.
The United States kept important bases in Japan after the occupation period ended.
Women were granted the vote, but their conditions differed.
The American occupation forces wanted to open secondary schools to more social groups.
The emphasis on school success was heightened by these changes.
Japan has one of the most meritocratic systems in the world, with students advanced to university training on the basis of rigorous exams.
The government restored some traditional components of the education package after the occupation ended.
Schools in this situation should generate ethical discipline and group consciousness, touching base with more customary goals while preparing students for their role in Japan's expanding economy.
Korea's postwar adjustment period was more troubled than Japan's, due to the intervention and war of Korea sponsored by the united States.
The leaders of the great Allied agreed in principle that Korea should be restored as a parliamentary state.
The United States' desire to get Soviet help against Japan resulted in Soviet occupation of the northern part of the peninsula.
The Korean Communist party founded emergence after 1950s.
The northern half of the Korea regime was headed by a nationalist named Syngman.
South Korea developed institutions that were parliamentary in form but maintained a headed by Kim il-sung, who initiated a Korean strongly authoritarian tone.
The flight of hundreds of thousands of refugees from one region to another was caused by the internationalization of the civil conflict between the regimes of North and South Korea.
Many of the people in flight died of the cold and hunger during the harsh winter season.
The United Nations sponsorship of a largely American "police action" in support of South Korean troops was orchestrated by President Truman, who insisted on drawing another line against communist aggression.
North Korea was pushed back by Allied forces from 1950 to1953, supported by the U.S.S.r.
The People's republic of China sent volunteers to force American troops back toward the south after this action roused concern on the part of China's communist regime.
The united States near the original north-south border supported the front in 1952.
When a new American and small international administration agreed to an armistice, the stalemate was over.