PDF to printer species increased more than the total.
The relative abundance of native 1 is measured by the area rating index.
After 1988, native species began to replace pioneer species.
The restoration efforts have resulted in a high-quality oak savanna.
It's important for prairie restoration and maintenance to have fire.
bison help maintain prairies.
The mixture of ages and species is third of what is now the United States.
Burning maintained the eastern edge of the forest.
The fires produced the carbon-rich sod.
The forest we see today is a complex one.
This forest has been converted to corn and soybean fields.
We don't need to allow natural fires to burn again and to reintroduce 2 percent of the original 1 million km2 of tall prescribed fires.
In Iowa, for example, many national parks now recognize the necessity which used to be almost entirely covered by this biome, the largest for fire to maintain forests.
In Sequoia National Park, giant sequoias have survived for thousands of years because their thick bark is fire resistant, and they shed lower branches so that fire can't get up into their crown.
dense under growth allowed for a crowd around the base of the sequoias.
The sequoia can be killed by fire if the smaller trees provide aladder.
Fuel removal and prescribed fires are used to protect giant trees.
The eastern edge of the Great Plains was covered by tallgrass prairie, where some grasses reached heights of 6 ft and had roots more than 4 m long.
Less than 2% of the original 10 million km2 of tallgrass prairie is still in its original condition.
There was a mixed prairie in the middle of the Great Plains.
The conifer-hardwood mixture and complex matrix of grasses in this region grew to heights of more than 1 m. Prescribed burning is needed to maintain this forest.
There is a PDF sample of unplowed tallgrass prairie that is only 80 ha in Oklahoma.
A mixed prairie with both bunch and sod-forming 18,000 ha (45,000 acres) of land was purchased or obtained by the middle of the Great TNC.
The west of the 100th meridian has a dry climate.
The Tallgrass Prairie Ecological band of the Great Plains was established in the westernmost part of the state.
Three dozen burns are conducted each over 30 or 40 cm tall.
Like the oak savanna immediately to the east, the prairies have been randomly selected and have 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 About one-third of the pastures are burned.
Each year, Native American people understood the role.
The majority of the burns are done in the spring.
They set fires in late summer.
In the early 1990s, 300 bison were reintroduced to the preserve.
The herd numbered about 2,700 animals in 2016 on about 25,000 acres.
One of the earliest attempts to restore native prairie took place at that location.
Aldo Leopold and a dozen research projects have been active on the preserve since 1934, and 78 reports of others working to re-create a tallgrass prairie have been published in scientific journals.
The Tallgrass Prairie National Preserve is the second largest example of this in the United States.
Because the land in this area is too rocky for agriculture, the land was grazed but never planted.
The Nature Conservancy originally purchased prairie plants, but they are now competing against exotics and are managed by the National Park Service.
It's neighbor to fire is an essential part of the system.
The Konza Prairie, a part of the preserve known as the south, is a weedy species that is killed by fire.
This gives native species, which are adapted to low-nitrogen soils, an advantage.
The Nature Conservancy has established many pre studied at this prairie.
The role of grasslands in carbon sequestra serves throughout the eastern Great Plains to protect fragments of tion and responses of this biological community to climate change tallgrass prairie.
The largest remaining are of special interest.
The University of Wisconsin's Curtis Prairie was planted with native prairie seeds in 1934 by workers from the Civilian Corps.
Ecological succession and restoration have been taught by the restored prairie.
There are two ways to save shortgrass prairie.
The Nature Conservancy is working with ranchers on joint restoration programs.
The Matador ranch in Montana was bought by the TNC in 2000 and is home to 13 neighboring ranchers.
The ranchers have agreed to protect about 900 ha of prairie dog colonies.
Almost 120,000 ha of weed-free range has been achieved because all the ranchers agreed to control weeds.
A technician sets a back fire.
One of TNC's ranches was deeded to a fire that will restore a native prairie.
A group is trying to preserve the buffalo commons near the Matador land.
The American portion of the Great Plains has the Prairie Foundation, which is linked to the World and has been converted to crop fields.
The fossil water may land as it is being used up.
Rather than keep it in cattle production, the group wants to pull out fences, eliminate ranch buildings, and use current techniques.
Many areas are turning the land into wilderness.
The APF hopes to achieve something.
The reserve of at least 1.5 million ha in the Missouri Breaks used to be supplied by small towns.
There is a lot of worry about the future of this region of the country.
The best use for the land may be to restore native wildlife, including bison, wolves, and nal prairie, as much as possible.
There are millions of hectares of shortgrass prairie and ranches are being abandoned.
This provides for nature preserves.
Some may have bison and the chance to restore a buffalo commons like that which was discovered by Lewis and Clark.
The American prairies coevolved with animals.
60 million of these huge, shaggy animals used to roam the plains from the Rockies to the edge of the eastern forest.
By 1900, there were probably less than 150 bison left in the United States.
Less than 4% of the ani mals are genetically pure, but wildlife protection and breeding programs have rebuilt the population to about 500,000.
The bison's intensive grazing helped maintain native plant species.
When put on open range, domestic cattle selec tively on the species they prefer, giving noxious weeds aselective advantage.
The bison tend to move in dense herds, eating almost everything in their path and heavily fertilizing the area over which they pass.
Many pioneer species disappear when bison are removed because of their trampling and intense grazing.
The bison dig out wallows in which they take dust baths.
If the Prairie Foundation buys large tracts of land in the Missouri Breaks, bison won't come because they have enough space to roam in.
This is one of the reasons for supporting the idea of sustainable livestock management.
While bison increase plant productivity by increasing the availability of light and reducing having bison nearby, they object to re-introduction wolves water stress, both of which increase photosynthesis rates.
Ranchers don't like the funding for the tems.
Plants need Nitrogen and Phosphorous.
Wall Street and California's Silicon Valley are some of the funders of the project.
Ted Turner, the media mogul, is using his money to change how western land is used.
Locals who struggle to stay on the land resent outsiders who compete to buy the range.
With donations of more than $12 million so far, and fund raising goals of at least $100 million, the APF points out that it isn't forcing anyone from the land.
The group only buys from ranchers who want to sell.
Locals worry that the land will be restricted for hunting.
Tourism, bird-watching, and hunting will be allowed on nearly all of the APF's land.
Small towns are worried about how it will affect the local economy.
Without federal subsidies, the average return on ranchland in the Missouri Breaks is less than $5 per acre.
Hunting and tourism bring in more income than raising cows.
In prairie restoration, bison can be an important tool.
Should people expect to maintain an economy that disturbs the ground and provides an opening for pioneer species?
How would you choose the ranches and preserves in the Great Plains?
In urine and buffalo chips, bison return the plant material to the soils.
The slow release from plant litter decay is more efficient than the efficiency of bison.
Nitrogen is released by burning plant material.
Reducing the aboveground plant biomass and increasing the patchiness of the fire is how bison limit nitrogen loss.
Increased plant productivity and species composition are a result of these changes.
Many ranchers are recognizing the benefits of native animals.
bison are well adapted to the harsh conditions of the prairie, where cows need shelter from the harsh weather and lots of water to drink.
The meat is tender and delicious.
The price of beef is higher in the marketplace.
About 400,000 bison are on ranches and farms in North America.
It's less than 1 percent of the original popu lation, but it's 10,000 times more than the tiny remnant left after the wanton slaughter.
There is a Louisiana cypress swamp that is being threatened.
Wetlands provide habitat for a wide variety of species.
Levees and channelizing the Mississippi River sped flood water and the silt it carried out into the Gulf of Mexico.
Wetlands were lost into the depths of the Gulf.
Many streams need to be rebuilt.
Important ecological ser vices are provided by wetlands, rivers, and streams.
They play important roles in the cycle.
They provide food and habitat for a wide variety of species.
According to the Fish and Wildlife Service, one-third of all species in the United States spend at least part of their lives in wetlands.
Wetlands are important for absorbing storm surge.
It is estimated that the storage of floodwaters in wetlands is worth $3 billion to $4 billion a year.
Wetlands act as natural water purification by removing silt and absorbing toxins from the water.
The services have recently been recognized.
Wetlands were considered useless for a long time.
The attitude was reflected in public policies.
Individuals could buy swamps and marshes for as little as 10 cents per acre.
Louisiana has nearly 40 percent of the remaining coastal recently, federal, state, and local governments encouraged wetlands in the United States, but diverted river silt to create land for development.
The government paid farmers to ditch and cause the Gulf shoreline to retreat in order to boost crop production.
The draining and filling of wetlands has destroyed 70 acres of new delta, estuary, and beach.
99 percent of the original wetlands have disappeared as a result of this additional habitat.
New recreational has been provided since European settlement.
The 1972 Clean Water Act gave rise to pro opportunities for human neighbors.
Wastewater can be dumped into surface waters.
There were federal courts in the American Midwest in 1977.
The upper Mississippi River has 26 locks and dams.
The 1985 Farm Bill created a series of large buster provisions that blocked agricultural subsidies to farmers.
Wetlands began to be damaged from the surrounding farm fields.
Many states don't have a net fill of these pools.
This could have created a network of wetlands policies.
Waves and currents created by wind, floods, and river traffic gave the United States a net gain of about 80,000 ha of wetlands between 1998 and 2004.
The total area hid an issue.
Losses take root.
A series of wide, shallow, semisolid of 210,000 ha of swamp and marsh wetlands were offset by net mud puddles that are too thick for fish but too liquid for vegetation.
The United States needs more dams to allow the mud to solidify and turn into marshlands.
Some efforts will be looked at in this section.
The "river of grass" is sometimes covered by over four million acres of land that is needed to stop the destructive forces.
Wetlands often need to restore water and sediment supplies that have been diverted elsewhere.
The levees below New Orleans are being cut to allow fresh, muddy Mississippi River water to reenter the wetlands.
Fresh water replenishes eroded marshes and is deposited into the ocean.
The Caernarvon Diversion east of New Orleans has reduced saltwater intrusion and helped expand the area of a healthy wetlands.
The restoration of the Louisiana wetlands depends on the assumption that controlling water flow will result in the restoration of a healthy biological community.
Monitoring is needed to evaluate the results.
replenishment of beaches is one of the benefits of removing dams, as shown in the opening case study for this chapter.
In many coastal areas of the United States, as well as elsewhere in the world, damming rivers have trapped silt that would have been carried down to the sea to form deltas, beaches, and barrier islands.
Climate change, wave action, and coastal currents are causing erosion that depletes beaches.
Dams on the upper Mississippi River have dredged sand from the ocean.
Currents are created by wind, floods, and river traffic.
A more natural solution is to restore the flow of water.
In the first two years after the Elwha dams were removed, the mud will be able to solidify and turn into marshlands.
The science of restoration is 3.
There are few simple answers to the Salt Concentrations plex.
Restoration uses a salinity sensor to measure the environmental problems that are concentration of salt ion huge and persistent.
We recognize that ecological up to a small computer that restoration is a necessity if we automatically records data are to preserve economies.
By keeping an eye on tures and ways of life.
The city of New Orleans was flooded in 2005.
Student volunteers sample plants and species composition to evaluate a large project, but tion and interpretation, scientists the health of a coastal wetlands.
One goal of the monitoring team is to increase the abundance and small projects have been planned, and some can calculate the amount of land and diversity of plants.
There is a testable hypothesis in progress.
In 2000 there is the water and in 2006 there is a series of structures.
The data of New Orleans was gathered.
The restoration team can use culverts to divert water from the Mississippi, if they compare the aver pipes to the one on the one year's map.
By subtracting one layer from age number of plant species or the average together with fill to plug or block abandoned the other, analysts identify not only the abundance of each species in the different gas-field canals.
The escape amount of change is slowed by these plugs.
A simple yes or no answer will tell you if the river water is polluted.
Reducing the amount of salt is a goal.
Before water diversions testable hypothesis is: "After the project is finished, make some changes."
salinity will be less of a key aspect of restoration as monitoring begins.
If the project has been side, how would we know?
Plants are being monitored for mean salinity value and variation from erence areas.
All species are listed in each plot.
The relative abun Restoration relies on inputs from over the reference areas and over the base dance of different species.
Ecol line conditions before the project started are a variety of sciences.
They can revisit the same location years also experimental, partly because it is a new with three central concerns: later to monitor change.
They can ration projects by sampling science and replicating a number of plots.
It is an extremely 1.
There is a ratio of land to water.
A sense of aggregate change is being mapped using aerial area.
The final PDF contains 1,000 km of levees and 200 water-control structures.
Many of the cities that demanded the water be diverted are experiencing water shortages during the dry season.
There is no water left in the natural wetlands.
Nature is suffering from water shortages.
There are concerns that the entire aquatic environment may be collapsing due to the loss of 90 percent of the birds in the park.
The various stakeholders finally agreed on a massive reengineering of the south Florida water system in 2000.
The plan was to return some water to the area, but retain control to prevent flooding.
The levees and canals would be removed.
500 million liters of water per day would be pumped into underground aquifers to be released later.
Natural meanders that store storm water and provide wildlife habitat are being restored.
Water pollution and diversion projects are threatening the Florida Everglades, which is often described as a "river of the biological community to recover, although whether it will be grass"
The restoration proj moving sheet of water, which can be 80 km wide, was almost immediately derailed by an extraordinary lob a few centimeters deep.
The largest polluter in the center of the state, and one of the largest political donors in the state, starts the river in the springs near Orlando, and then moves through Lake Okeechobee and one of the largest political donors in the state.
The industry opposed requirements to pay for clean of the southern tip of the peninsula.
The original plan was to reduce the number of animals.
If the muckland was drained, it could grow great crops.
More than a century ago, ditching and divert ing the water began.
A series of floods that threatened the wealthy coastal cities triggered a demand for more water management.
Surplus water was moved out to sea.
The goal is to restore the wetlands to their original state.
The national park boundary is shown in red.
For major polluters to pay for the effort, the final PDF to printer pollution.
The law passed by the Florida legislature and signed by the governor required the public to pay for the back up of the dead lines.
Governor Bush and the legislature refused to budge despite warnings from the Federal Government that the bill would derail the project.
The results of a number of small projects have been modest over the past decade.
Delays, corruption, lack of political will, and inflated costs have held back progress.
In 2012 federal and state regulators settled on a new plan to clean up the polluted water.
Environmentalists are not sure if the Everglades are back on track.
It remains to be seen if restoration will ever be successful.
The case shows how politics can affect restoration projects.
Another long, expensive, and contentious project is the restoration of the bay.
200,000 ha of coastline, salt marsh, and shallow water areas are being replanted by volunteers.
The Great Plains used to be covered by millions of prairie potholes.
More than half of the shallow ponds have been drained for crop production.
As agriculture expanded across the Plains, at least half or replace, smaller ecosystems can be much easier to restore.
7 million were gone by 1964, when lions of these shallow ponds and grassy wetlands were spread in Canada's Prairie Provinces.
The United States had similar losses across the prairies.
The passage of the migratory bird hunting stamp act in 1934 marked a turning and mediated flooding by storing enormous amounts of water.
Over the past 70 years, this pro gram has collected $700 million that has been used to acquire more than five million acres of habitat for the National Wildlife refuge system.
When the Duck Stamp Act was passed in 1934, there were 26 million migra tory ducks in the United States.
Duck production increased to 44 million birds by 2006 as a result of a wetter climate and habitat restoration.
About $25 million a year is provided by duck stamps for wildlife.
It's more difficult to replace other types of wetlands than it is to dig new ponds.
The United States lost 210,000 ha of swamp and marshes between 1998 and 2004.
The large cylinder is made of wetlands.
Replacing a dam material will help the shore.
There are many factors that degrade streams and rivers.
There are more than 5 million km of rivers and streams in the United States.
In a 1994 EPA survey of nearly 1 million km of rivers and streams, only 56 percent fully supported multiple uses, which included drinking-water supply, fish and wildlife habitat, recreation, and agriculture.
The most significant causes of degradation were sedi mentation and excess nutrients.
The results could be applied to the rest of the nation's waterways.
The need for stream restoration is obvious.
One way to deal with erosion and flooding in urban streams is to turn them into cement channels or bury them in under ground culverts.
Developers weren't required to plant stream in the past.
Natural native vegetation can be found in wetlands.
They were allowed to simply dig a stream and wait for it to fill with rain and invaders.
Buried streams need a more ecological approach.
The original bio for streams has been used to represent a variety of restoration techniques.
This field is an important source of jobs logical community.
A simple approach in which a housing developer created a wetlands.
The developer destroyed about 10 ha of ground cover on uplands and filled them with rocks and brush in order to build a housing project.
Sometimes the fastest way to rebuild a chan and sedge species is small streams.
To compensate for the loss, the nel is to use heavy earth moving equipment to dig a new developer a hole and wait for the rain water to fill it.
He didn't have to replant wetlands.
Natural succession will revegetate the disturbed area.
It was revegetated with exotic invaders.
Artificial wetlands are a low-cost way to treat sewage effluent.
Arcata needed an expensive sewer plant upgrade.
A 65-ha garbage dump was transformed into a series of ponds and marshes that serve as a low-cost waste treat ment facility.
Arcata saved millions of dollars and improved its environment at the same time.
The marsh has become a prized recreation area for the city because it is a haven for wildlife.
The water flows into the bay.
Small pools and rain gardens-shallow pits lined with porous surface material and planted with water tolerant vegetation--are used to collect storm runoff and allow it to trickle into the ground rather than run into rivers or lakes.
Many former streams have been turned into concrete-lined structed marshes that allow industrial cooling water to equilibrate ditches to control erosion.
Before entering streams or other surface water bodies, there is an artificial system.
The living biological community that was once made up of wetlands can be useful to both humans and wildlife.
PDF to printer one.
This can cause a lot of disruption, however, it can also cause a lot of harm to fish and other aquatic organisms.
Stream improvement methods are available.
Most of the methods involve placing barriers in the streams to keep the current out of the banks.
These barriers can cause currents to travel through deep pools in the stream bottom, which can be used by fish to hide and rest.
There are logs, brush bundles, and boulders that can be used to shelter fish.
The so-called "lunker" structure is an effective way to hide fish.
The framework is anchored to the shore and rests on the stream bottom.
There is rock, soil, and vegetation on the top of the box.
There are hiding places for fish in the open ings.
A wooden framework is a lunker structure.
The stream is 1 m wide and 1 m deep and can be anchored to the shore.
The deep is spread out to be about 10 cm deep.
The structure warms the water and provides hiding places for fish.
There was no hiding place.
The last remaining trout stream in the model isn't much biological production, but that Minneapolis/St.
A decision was made in the Paul metropolitan area.
The Department was expected to restore it.
The group offered which are usually caught before they have time to learn to rebuild the stream.
They narrowed the channel with large stone blocks, which is artificial nature, and lack of a native biological community, to provide a good surface for fishing.
There are different visions for restoring a trout stream.
straw bales were used to narrow the stream.
The channel that favored native trout was washed away by this.
Final PDF to printer was adopted for most of the stream.
Rock walls, riprap, or embedded tree trunks were used to support the straw bales.
The stream was narrowed and the speed of the current was increased.
The stream had deepened by 50 cm within three months.
In a small area, anchored in place with green willow stakes, it is possible to simply excavate and replace contaminated soil.
It may be possible to shade the stream from the sun if the soil is moist and sprouted to make plants that arched over the pollutants are organic.
After this treatment, seeds of native wetlands were scattered on top of the soil.
There is a dense growth of vegetation that keeps the organic compounds such as oil and other contaminants out of the air.
Water cools, provides fish shelter, and supports a rich community ofbacteria in the ground, when oxygen is provided to the native trout.
Many kinds of toxins can be decontaminated by an aquatic invertebrate.
While the stream was wide and shallow, 58 percent of Experi's findings show that pumping air into aquifers can be more effective than pumping water out for treatment.
For hostile envidis flies, and other preferred trout food made up only 20 percent ronments or exotic, human-made chemicals that can't be metabo of all invertebrates.
After the straw bale restoration, it's sometimes possible to genetically copepods made up only 15 percent of the invertebrate population, as well as new varieties ofbacteria that can survive in extreme con and stone flies.
Stream restoration depends on stabilizing banks.
Where banks have been undermined by erosion and stream action, plants andbacteria will continue to be unstable and cave into the stream.
A slope of no more than 45 degrees from the soil, air, or water is ideal for reconstitution of the toxins bank.
The soil can be held in place by rocks, planted vege can extract lead, arsenic, zinc, and other metals from the ground.
It might be necessary to install erosion nated soil.
Control fabric or mulch has been removed to hold soil until vegetation is established.
There are toxins, metals, and cancer-causing compounds that can be captured by sunflowers and other plants.
Heavy metals are captured and unburned by sunflowers.
Shallow slopes can be used for stabilization.
Reinforcement is needed to hold the soil.
In some cases, bioremediation could have multiple benefits.
Its seeds have high concentrations of oils that make them competitive with canola as an oil seed crop.
The oils can be used for bioplastic production and can be converted into fuel.
gluco sinolates in the oil can be converted into a soil fumigant that is eco-friendly.
pennycress could be grown on contaminated inner city lands, producing either fuel or chemical feedstocks, while also decontaminating the soil.
Many cities are finding that brown fields can turn unused inner-city property into valuable assets.
This is a good way to make use of existing infrastructure.
Cleaning up hazardous and toxic waste is a big business in America and will continue to be so for a long time to come.
In places where other industries are disappearing, this is a growth industry.
The Berkely mine pit may be the most toxic water body in the United States.
The pit is now being used for agricultural production.
In the early part of this century, the being treated, and eventually there may be an effort to pump water out Bureau of Reclamation and the Army Corps of Engineers dredged, of the pit and decontaminate it, but the pit itself will probably never be drained.
We are using ecological restoration to restore some of thereclaimed lands to a more natural state.
reclamation is the repairing of human- damaged to open-pit mining and dug the hole you see today.
The SMCRA ended in 1981 and requires mine operators to restore the shape of the began to fill the pit.
It has accumulated to make a lake 1.6 km land and revegetate it to minimize impacts wide and deep.
The U.S. states that.
The Office of Surface Mining has reclaimed more than 8,000 km2 of former strip mines that were laden with heavy metals and toxic chemicals.
In 1995 a flock of uses, such as recreation areas, farming and rangeland, wetlands, migrating snow geese was found dead after landing by mistake wildlife refuges, and sites for facilities such as hospitals, shopping in the pit.
The pit is polluted.
If the water level hits the critical enrichment, the pit could be returned to it's previous state, with a cov elevation of 1,649 m above sea level.
Unfortu threaten the water used by the city of Butte, the plant is often buried deep during mining, and what ends is to treat the contents of the pit.
It's highly unlikely that the pit will ever be without a great deal of water andfertilizer, because this is a recla up on the surface that won't revegetate very well.
The largest mine pits will never be returned to their original location.
This area was one 1 from the 1860s to the 1980s.
Humans have caused massive damage and degradation to a wide variety of biological communities, but there are many ways to ally.
Integrity, health, stability, beauty, and repair this damage are Characteristics.
We moral responsibility tends to be human interpretations rather than returning a site to its pre-disturbance scientific facts.
We need to have goals for restoration, but they aren't always possible.
sim public can understand and accept pragmatic goals.
Sometimes, such as restoring the Elwha River, it's enough to leave nature alone to heal itself, but often we need to intervene in some way to remove or discourage organ swaths of shortgrass prairie.
Others promote the growth of more desirable species.
The biotic community is within this wide range.
There are many opportunities for us to get involved.
The foundation is buying up ranches.
To wilderness where wild animals can roam freely, how would you balance human preferences?
The Nature Conservancy wants to reconstruct the Hassayampa River Preserve with heavy equipment.
Phoenix shows a situation in which there may be more than one historic condition to which we may wish to restore a land from a human perspective.
Restoring savannas often requires the use of pesticides.
Some people think this is dangerous and unnatural.
The figure below is a form of graphic representation that we haven't seen before.
A concept map is a two- colored box with brief descriptions of an actual ecosystems.
Replacing the terms associated with the arrows between the chart shows how we might think about a situation, and suggests boxes with actions that cause changes in your affinities and associations that might not be obvious.
There are two subcategories, native species and alien species.
The diagram has two arrows labeled "reallocation".
The arrow is marked with a dotted line.
You will find LearnSmart, an adaptive learning system, as well as additional Case Studies, Data Analysis exercises, and an interactive ebook.