Many enslaved African Americans were unaware of the discrepancies between God's Word and his master and mistress.
William Wells Brown, a former slave, said that slaveholders hid themselves behind the Church and that a more praying, preaching, psalm-singing people couldn't be found in the South.
Many slaves chose to create and practice their own versions of Christianity, one that typically incorporated aspects of traditional African religions with limited input from the white community.
Nat Turner was inspired by religion early in his life.
Turner, who adopted an austere Christian lifestyle during his adolescence, claimed to have been visited by "spirits" during his twenties and considered himself a prophet.
Turner led the most deadly slave rebellion in the antebellum South after he claimed to have had visions in which he was called on to do the work of God.
Nat Turner and six other people tried to free the region's enslaved population on the morning of August 22, 1831.
Turner killed his master with an ax.
The terror felt by white southerners after Nat Turner's rebellion was captured in this woodcut.
The state created stricter, more limiting laws regarding slavery after the rebellion.
Turner hid for a number of weeks in nearby woods before being captured and executed by the local militia and white residents.
The white terror that followed Nat Turner's rebellion transformed southern religion, as anti-literacy laws increased and black-led churches were broken up and placed under the supervision of white ministers.
Understandings of what it meant to be a southern man or a southern woman were shaped by evangelical religion.
Southern manhood was shaped by an obsession with masculine honor, while southern womanhood was shaped by expectations of sexual virtue or purity.
The public recognition of white masculine claims was prioritized by Honor.
The southern men developed a code to perform their expectations of honor and ritualize their interactions with each other.
The code was designed to minimize conflict.
When conflict occurred, the code provided rituals that would reduce the violence.
The code was shown in action.
They exchanged pistol shots to prove their honor status.
Duelists arranged a secluded meeting, chose from a set of deadly weapons, and risked their lives as they clashed with swords or fired pistols at one another.
Some of the most illustrious men in American history, including President Andrew Jackson, Vice President Aaron Burr, and U.S. senators Henry Clay and Thomas Hart Benton, participated in a duel at some point in their lives.
Dueling helped elevate these men to prominence.
Fights and shoot outs were common among the lower classes.
The sharpening of fingernails and filing of teeth into razor-sharp points would be used to bite off ears and noses.
The gentleman who risked his life rather than killing his opponent achieved recognition, whereas those who killed their opponent achieved victory.
The legal system was to blame for violence in the Old South.
Laws against murder, rape, and other forms of violence were rarely prosecuted and juries often acquitted the accused.
Despite the fact that hundreds of duelists fought and killed one another, there is no evidence that many faced prosecution and only one, Timothy Bennett, was executed.
Lower-class southerners were often found guilty in greater numbers than their wealthier counterparts.
Too many southern women cultivated a sense of femininity while maintaining their sense of masculinity.
Femininity in the South was more tied to the domestic sphere than it was to the North.
Wealthy southern women were limited in their ability to engage in public life by the cult of domesticity.
While northern women began to organize reform societies, southern women remained bound to the home and were told to manage their household.
It wasn't easy to manage the household.
Women on large plantations would have to manage a large bureaucracy of slaves.
Most southern women who did not live on plantations had to keep their families clean and well-behaved.
Many southern women were required to help with agricultural tasks.
The social position of women in southern culture was not understood through economic labor, but through moral virtue.
While men fought to get ahead in the turbulent world of the cotton boom, women were instructed to offer a calming, moralizing influence on husbands and children.
The home was supposed to be a place of quiet respite and spiritual solace.
The values required for economic success and cultural refinement would be fostered by the southern home.
Southern culture, law, and violence mostly centered on protecting the virtue of sexual purity from any imagined threat, as a result of the fact that female virtue came to be understood as a euphemism for sexual purity.
The sexual exploitation of black women created a paranoid obsession with protecting the sexual purity of white women.
Black men were seen as a sexual threat.
In the name of keeping white womanhood pure, racial systems of violence and domination were used for generations.
The antebellum South was created by cotton.
The profit, exploitation, and social dimensions of a larger, more connected, global community were opened by the wildly profitable commodity.
The Cotton Revolution helped the South and the world.
Some of the glitters are not gold.
The slave trade grew as the 1860s approached.
Politics, race relations, and the burden of slavery continued beneath the roar of steamboats, countinghouses, and the exchange of goods.
There were many questions about what to do if slavery came under threat.
The chapter was edited by Andrew Wegmann.
Unless otherwise stated, all slavery statistics refer to "Slavery in the United States".
Baltimore, New Orleans, and Charleston were the top three southern cities in terms of population in 1820.
Andrew N. Wegmann wrote "Skin Color and Social Practice: The Problem of Race and Class Among New Orleans Creoles and Across the South, 1718-1862."
The free population of the South in 1860 was 8,289,782.
R e CoM M e n de d R e a dI ng Baptist, Edward E.
The Slavery Question in the Old South is called Deliver Us from Evil.