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ChAPTER 28 -- Part 11: The Emergence of Industrial Society
After 1814, New Zealand began to receive British attention after being visited by the Dutch in the 17th century.
The Polynesian hunting-and-gathering people were well organized politically.
Between 1814 and the 1840s, missionary efforts converted many of them to Christianity.
European immigration followed after the British government took official control of the area.
New Zealand settlers relied heavily on agriculture to sell to Australia and Britain.
After the defeat of the Maoris in the 1860s, good relations were established between the settlers and the people of New Zealand.
The parliamentary system in Canada and Australia allowed the new nation to rule itself without interference from the mother country.
Canada, New Zealand, and Australia have different national issues.
The United States was less dependent on the European economy than the new countries were.
Exchanges with Europe remained important because industrialization did not overshadow commercial agriculture and mining in Australia.
These countries owe the basic patterns of Western civilization, from political forms to key lei sure activities.
These important new extensions were largely characterized by the currents of liberalism, socialism, modern art, and scientific education.
The United States and parts of Latin America received new waves of European emigration during the 19th century.
Europe's population growth rate advanced rapidly despite the fact that it slowed after 1800, as more children reached adulthood and had children of their own.
Europe's export of people helped explain how Western societies took shape.
The new power of Western industrial ization was reflected in the spread of the Western settler societies.
Huge areas could be settled quickly thanks to steamships and rails.
The power balance within Europe was altered by the unification of Germany.
During the 1870s and 1880s, a skilled manipulator named Bismarck built a complex alliance system designed to protect Germany and divert European attention.
France was largely isolated from Germany.
The French were against imperialist expansion in Africa and Asia.
Few parts of the world were available for Western seizure by 1900.
Latin America was independent but under the influence of the U.S.
Africa was almost completely destroyed.
The diplomatic furor caused byMorocco by France and Libya by Italy caused other colonial powers to worry about the balance of forces.
China and the Middle East were not independent, but they were surrounded by rivalries between the Western powers and Russia.
No agreement could be reached on further takeovers.
The sense of rivalry between key nation-states had been fed by imperialist expansion.
Britain was worried about Germany's construction of a large navy.
The economic competition between Germany and Britain added fuel to the fire.
France was willing to play down its traditional rivalries with Britain.
Germany dropped its alliance with Russia after 1890 due to Russian-Austrian enmity.
Germany grew more concerned about facing at the end of the 19th century because of potential enemies to the east and west.
The first of several arms races in the 20th century happened when these powers built up their military of european alliance system.
The balance of power was saved prior to World War I.
The addition of a new kind of battleship, the Britain, Russia, and France at the dreadnought, was a key escalation and discussions about reducing armament levels went nowhere.
An unstable partner was needed for each alliance system.
Russia suffered a revolution in 1905, and the european alliance system worried that any further diplomatic setbacks would paralyze the eastern giant.
There are movements that might bring chaos.
The final piece in the puzzle was created by Austria and Russia, who were heavily involved in creating independent nations in the Balkans.
The nations were hostile to each other.
Austria and Russia almost came to blows over Balkan issues.
The Balkans engaged in two internal wars in 1912 and 1913 which resulted in territorial gains for several states but no one.
Serbia, which bordered Austria to the south, wanted more.
Austria was nervous over the gains Serbia had made.
An Austrian archduke was assassinated in 1914 by a Serbian nationalist.
Austria promised to punish Serbia.
Then Britain joined its allies.
There were a lot of new problems for Western society when I started.
It's not easy to explain the tensions that led to war.
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