The deeper the level of processing, the more likely the in formation will be stored.
Depth of processing is more important than time spent processing.
The instructions given to research participants can have a big impact on what is learned.
The effects that different types of processing can produce were demonstrated in one classic study.
Four groups of people were told to study the same list of words.
The instructions for each group were shown in Table 4-3.
All four groups were given a recall test.
Group 4 was not surprised by the test.
The stagesof-memory model and levels-ofprocessing theory are related.
Rate the pleasantness of each word if your ideal model has elements of Group 3.
The words should be memorised for the recall test.
Adapted from Hyde and Jenkins.
The surprise value of the test did not produce the results because Groups 3 and 4 did not differ.
The groups had different levels of process ing in which they engaged.
Group 1 and 2 only counted letters and marked e's.
The information was processed at a very shallow level by Groups 1 and 2.
Group 3 participants who rated the pleasantness of the words and Group 4 participants who memorised the words for a test were able to remember the information better because they had taken the words into account.
The beginning of this section describes a memory experiment.
The levels of processing were the focus of the experiment.
Other partici pants were not required to prepare a brief presentation, but only to read the journal article.
When researchers designed the study, they believed that a deeper level of processing would result in better comprehension.
The participants who were required to deliver a presentation on the topic remembered more of the material when tested later.
Many studies show that depth or level of pro cessing influences our memories, but this theory has not gone away.
It is difficult to know how many levels there are without a clear definition of what a level is.
Some researchers have been encouraged to look at different levels of processing in terms of the amount of effort put into it.
Several studies have shown that better retention is linked to greater effort.
Imagine that you are part of an experiment in which the task is to learn words that rhyme.
You have to memorize the rhyming words that you have created.
When studying Will you remember your rhyming words better than people who are only asked to attend classes.
The answer is yes because your effort in vivid examples was more than their effort in merely remembering the information that is connected to them.
If you want to remember the terms and concepts in your psychology class, try coming up things you've learned before or in other ways with your own examples.
The assumption that we are a succession of independent stages has yet to be verified.
Other approaches have been developed because of the facts.
Explicit memory can be divided into three categories.
Implicit memory can be divided into two categories.
These items are almost, but not in memory.
Semantic memory is a type of memory that can be used for general knowledge and facts.
The United States of America was founded by George Washington.
The seasons are winter, spring, summer and fall.
Oil is used in asphalt.
You know the answer, but you can't get it.
Many people who are experiencing TOT may be able to report the first letter of the word, they may know some of the other letters in the word, and are likely to report related words.
When you consider that the person cannot report the word itself, the degree of information available can be remarkable.
For example, the Italian language designates masculine or feminine words that are not in English.
Italian speakers are able to report whether the blocked word is masculine or feminine when caught in the TOT dilemma.
Let's see if you have a good memory.
Before reading the answers to the questions, write them down.
You were able to find four types of long-term memory.
Examples of the type are what most TOT experiences involve.
Take the following test to find out if the TOT phenomenon is relevant to the study of memory.
You can write down as many state capitals as you can by covering the letters that follow with strips of paper.
Find the columns and see if you can remember those that were on the tip of your tongue.
The answers can be found at the end of the chapter.
These memories involve things that happened at certain times.
When we use Episodic memory, we mentally travel back into the past.
There are some examples of your authors' memories.
As the TOT phenomenon has been studied to help us learn more about semantic memory, flashbulb memories have been examined to provide information about epi sodic memory.
Our memories of such events are more detailed than our memories of everyday episodes.
The Danes who lived through the Nazi occupation and ultimate liberation had vivid memories of World War II.
They checked their memories against objective records for factual questions.
The members of the resistance movement had more vivid, detailed, and accurate memories than the people who did not participate.
flashbulb memories are similar to photos taken with a digital camera.
The images reflect flashbulb and in a few seconds you have a perfect re-creation of the scene that you can look memories for many people worldwide.
The situation is illuminated in your mind.
Because more effort is spent in the formation of flashbulb memories, such high in which prior exposure to lighting of details might lead to deeper levels of processing as well as provide more items, more items may aid subsequent learning.
It is difficult to give examples that everyone can identify.
The terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in New York and the Pentagon in Washington, DC, in September 2001 are flashbulb memories for many people.
New generations will not have flashbulb memories.
The day that you found out about the death of a loved one can create flashbulb memories, but not all flashbulb memories are big national events.
Strong emotional reactions to events, such as 9/11, seem to provide fer tile ground to establish long- lasting memories, but evidence indicates that the memories may not be as accurate or consistent as they were once believed to be.
The emotional component of the memory may lead us to discuss the memory over and over, at times having the effect of altering the mem ory, although confidence in the memory often remains quite high.
"Priming is a nonconscious form of human memory, which is concerned with percep tual identification of words and objects and which has only recently been recognized as separate from other forms of memory or memory systems"
It is difficult to detect and study implicit memory because it does not operate on a conscious level.
The pa tients with amnesia were able to learn the same words when they were able to study a group of words.
They were sensitized to the words they were to learn during the earlier study period.
The earlier study session prepared the patients to recognize the objects they were to learn.
Although we still have a lot to learn, priming appears to facilitate proce dural and semantic memory processes by improving our ability to identify perceptual stimuli or objects we encounter.
When we're unconscious, we're alert to the fact that we've encountered a particular object before.
The deeper levels of processing are involved in the priming effect.
Remembering how to start a lawnmower is an example of procedural memory.
Procedural memory can be classified as either explicit or implicit.
You can remember the steps required to ride a bicycle, but most of the time you don't.
A person's procedural memory is used at the same time as other types of mem ory.
Bicyclists can see the meaning of traffic signs at the same time.
H.M., a patient with profound anterograde amnesia, was able to learn new motor skills in the laboratory and in his everyday life, which is compelling evidence that procedural memory is in the implicit category.
H.M. was unaware of this example of procedural memory.
The study chart shows the different types of LTM.
Before reading further, you should review it for a few minutes.
Texas is the largest of the continental states.
Patients with amnesia study the identification of words and objects.
During spring break last year, she paid a surprise visit to her former teacher.
Sometimes we are able to get back some amazing memories.
Things we should remember seem to be gone forever.
Retrieval is the process by which we locate a memory that has been stored and bring it into consciousness.
Most people have good and bad memories, so psychologists are interested in studying them.
Write down some possible reasons for the question before you read further.
Retrieval from STM is not instantaneous, as was suggested by a series of classic studies.
Par ticipants were asked to keep a series of letters in their possession.
They were presented with a letter, such as B, and were asked if it was in the list they were holding.
The participants should have responded immediately if retrieval was not involved.
The participants took longer to answer as additional letters were added to the list.
To match the test letter with the ones they had stored, they scanned the entire list.
The longer the list, the harder it is to find a match.
The process of retrieving a specific memory is straightforward, but the process of retrieving long-term memories is different.
Various processes may be involved in the situation.
Retrieval of memories in recognition tasks and recall tasks are different.
The multiple-choice test is easier for most people because you only have to choose the right answer.
Consider the questions from Chapter 2.
It is possible that recognition tasks do not require the same amount of processing.
It might be easier to retrieve memories through recognition.
One type of memory task is not always easier than the other.
We search stored memories during the initial stage of recall and recognition retrieval.
We don't store information as separate bits and pieces, but as a network of related items.
The process of reestablishing a network is called the retrieval process.
The association between "library" and "shelves" is stronger than the association between "library" and "quiet".
The Network of related concepts relation can be direct or indirect.
Some of our memories are not arranged in a way that makes sense to a network of related items.
Coffee lines depict stronger links.
You have to tell her about the concert you went to.
You have been to several concerts in the past year and you have an organized cluster of knowledge about it.
Your recall of last weekend's concert will be influenced by the specific events that occurred at the concert in question.
You have things like a visit to a doctor, the first day of class, a wedding ceremony, negotiations to buy a new car, and so on.
Semantic networks can help with memory.
Concepts that are related have a better chance of being recalled.
You may be more likely to believe that two events happened together because of your history.
It is possible that the two events did not happen at the same time.
You remember it happening.
You might remember eating your aunt's famous pumpkin pie for Thanksgiv ing last year, when in reality your aunt did not bring her pie because she burned it the morning it was eaten.
Semantic networks can be useful for studying.
The more strong the connections, the more likely you will be able to recall them.
You've been looking for the cortical lobes.
In this case, you need to remember more than just names to answer the questions, and you need to organize the knowledge in an organized way.
The instructor wants the information in your schema.
When attempting to retrieve something, specific cues should be present in a very similar way.
Part of the information will be better when we know that the testing took place in a different place than the one where the studying took place.
In the classroom where you took the test, most of the effective retrieval cues were missing.
It was difficult to get the information you needed.
Before reading further, give this issue some thought and write down some possibilities.
Try to study in the room where the test will be given.
You can retrieve the memory with the help of the cues in the room.
If you can't study in the room where the test will be given, try different places.
The variety will prevent a single set of cues from being associated with the material you are learning.
Retrieval of your memories will not be tied to a specific set of environmental cues.
For a number of years, psychologists have known that if you learn material under certain conditions, you will be able to retrieve it.
Randi drank a lot of coffee while she was studying.
Coffee has a lot ofCaffeine, a central nervous system Stimuli, so Randi was alert during her study session.
When the memories of the material she was studying were not present, her physical state became one of the stimuli that were present.
When you are happy, you should be able to retrieve material more quickly.
Retrieval should be more difficult if the mood state that was present during learning differs from the one present during testing.
In Chapter 3, we learned that odors can be linked to both emotions and memories.
The link between smell and memory has been tested.
Students who only smelled an odor during the test session recalled more antonyms than students who only smelled an odor during the learning session.
Three very dif ferent odors were used to demonstrate that the memory effect was not limited to one odor.
The results showed that participants who smelled the same odor during both training and testing remembered antonyms better than participants who only smelled an odor during testing.
The phenomenon of state- dependent learning shows that it can be hard to get memories from a specific set of circumstances.
Maybe we have memories of events that happened years ago when we were studying.
If you drink and study memory recall material, you'll see that it's in the area of witness testimony.
The testimony plays an important stimulant.
Over the past two decades, 250 people have been exonerating through the use of DNA evidence.
Many of these innocent people spent decades in prison or on parole before their names were cleared.
A large amount of research has been stimulated by the possibility of inaccurate reports.
What can happen to a memory once it is retrieved is one of the most startling findings.
When a memory is retrieved from LTM, it appears to be placed in STM for conscious processing.
Your report may not correspond to what actually happened because the new memory contains more information.
The effect was tested in several ingenious experiments conducted by Elizabeth Loftus and her colleagues.
Two groups of people watched a series of slides that showed an impending collision between a red sports car and another car.
A group saw a car approaching a stop sign.
The second group saw a sports car approach a yield sign.
The participants were asked a series of questions after the presentation was over.
The questions were consistent with what the participants had seen.
If they had seen a stop sign, the questions referred to it, and if they had seen a yield sign, the questions referred to it.
If they had seen a stop sign, the questions were different, but if they had seen a yield sign, they were the same.
All participants were shown pairs of slides and asked to pick the one they had actually seen.
A large number of participants who were asked questions after seeing the slides picked the slide they had seen.
The misinformation effect is a result of the inconsistent questions changing their memory of the incident.
Many participants reported an incorrect memory when they retrieved it because they had been asked questions that were inconsistent.
The results of this type of research have implications for how police question witnesses.
They have to be careful in how they question witnesses because suggestive questioning can't alter their memories.
Research information is also used to demonstrate the memory-altering effects of questions.
Memory for events has shown that participants can be influenced by many factors, including race and violence.
The correlation between confidence and identification accuracy is low after an incident.
Chapter four can rise and fall as a function of viewing conditions.
The false memory effect is very strong and does not fade quickly.
There are problems with the results that they create for the credibility of testimony.
The sudden recall of supposedly repressed memories of childhood sexual abuse is one of the most dramatic and significant controversies in recent years.
The issue has been dubbed the "memory wars" because of the intense debate.
The headline of a newspaper article was "Troy Davis Execution Fuels Eyewitness ID Debate" It has been reported that the memories can be found decades after the abuse.
The basis for the controversy can be seen in the following cases.
A woman's therapist would suggest that the root of her depression was likely incest that occurred when she was a child.
The woman said she remembered her father raping her when she was just 4 years old.
The therapist wanted to know more about the ther apy.
The woman wrote pages about other cases of sexual abuse by her father.
After confronting her parents about the abuse, she began the process of charging her father.
After completing treatment at the hospital and consulting with new therapists, she concluded that the memories were just artifacts of the imagination encouraged by the therapist in the hospital and a pop psychol ogy book she was reading at the time.
A woman who was in the hospital program to treat obese reported that she had been sexually abused by her brother.
She joined a therapy group for incest survivors.
Her parents had left her brother's room untouched after he was killed in a war more than 15 years before.
When she returned to her brother's room she found evidence of abuse including handcuffs, pornography, and a diary where he recorded his sexual experiments on his little sister.
A woman entered therapy in 1986 to help her cope with a traumatic event that her daughter had recently experienced.
Her therapist used a lot of techniques.
The client had repressed memories of being a part of a satanic cult, having sex with animals, and eating babies.
She was 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 The repressed memories were implanted by the therapist and none of them were true.
The statute of limi tations has been extended in half of the states in the United States.
More and more victims are using revised laws to file civil and criminal actions.
If the recovered memories are repressed, it's a Freudian defense mechanism where the individual has no recollection of an often traumatic event.
For traumatic memories, there are questions of whether or not they can be forgotten for a long time.
There are two basic methods for recovering "repressed" memories.
One way of retrieving is through therapy.
A 20- to 30-year-old woman will usually seek therapy for a variety of problems.
Many thera pists believe that childhood sexual abuse is associated with a range of problems.
Some of them ask about the existence of childhood abuse in the first therapy session, despite the client's denials.
A majority of therapists use memory-recovery techniques to help their patients remember abuse.
It is unfortunate that memory-recovery techniques can help people create illusory memories.
The technique of using hypnotism to aid recall is likely to elicit inaccurate reports.
The accuracy of recall can be affected by the influence of hypnotism.
It may be instrumental in implanting false memories in individuals through the use of formal hypnotic procedures or even through simple suggestions.
The other method in which these "repressed" memories are recovered is often very sudden and outside of the therapy environment.
These instances of recov ered memories are often shocking to the individual and not the result of an intentional therapeutic exercise.
Friends and family members of the individual often report that the individual had talked about or referred to the trauma in the past, suggesting that the individual had not forgotten about it.
A person has forgotten about the event.
Sometimes their sudden memory of the trauma is the result of a sudden realization of what had actually happened to them.
A 30-year-old woman may have talked to her husband in the past about her interactions with her uncle when she was a child.
She may have only referred to the interactions as an innocent form of play, such as tickling, and not have thought about abuse.
This woman may have talked about the incident several times, but had never thought about what had actually happened.
One day, this woman might be attending a community lecture on survivors of childhood sexual abuse.
One of the speakers talks about her experiences with an adult who started tickling and then began fondling.
Suddenly our 30-year old woman has a lot of memories from when she was younger.
When she confides in her husband, he reminds her that she had told him about previous incidences.
There are more instances of corroborated memories when the recovered memories are obtained through the forgot-it-all-along effect.
This doesn't mean that all memories obtained through the forgot-it-all-along effect and therapy are true.
There are criticisms of the false memory studies.
Chapter four has been reporting events that actually happened.
The scenarios used in false memory studies are plausible, but childhood sexual abuse is less likely to be faked.
They were able to implant a bizarre and improbable event memory, which provides further support that memories can be implanted.
The false-memory research and the repressed memory controversy stimulated Kelly Michaels to work at the Wee research, and she came up with the idea that memory is fallible, quirky, and Care Day Nursery in Maplewood.
Do you remember seeing the same thing?
We see things that don't exist with visual illusions.
Her case snowballed.
We may remember things that never happened because of memory illusions.
In studies where children said Kelly licked peanut lists of words, the strength and believability of memory illusions were shown.
In these stud butter off their genitals, forced them ies, participants claimed that they remembered exactly who said the critical but non to drink urine and eat feces.
Some participants refused to believe that the fake words were not part of the original list when they heard a replay of the original.
Research shows that memory illusions are created for very com blocks.
Being hospitalized at a young age is one example of a plex situation.
One of your authors had the experience of realizing that one of her childhood memories never actually ended up being convicted of 15 charges and sentenced to 15 years in prison.
They seem to operate in the same way as other normal memory processes.
Maybe they wouldn't take her to trial the most apparent difference because of the amount of detail recalled.
A type of plagiarism in which we forget the source of information we read and use it as if it were our own.