This section will look at the ultimate form of hard power, war, after reviewing the various forms of soft power.
Much of U.S. foreign policy is conducted by the Foreign Service and ambassadors in face-to-face discussions across the world.
International summit meetings are a form of diplomacy.
Traditional diplomacy is still important in this era of personal leader-to- leader communication by telephone, fax, and teleconferencing, even though it is less important than it used to be.
When the United States breaks diplomatic relations with another nation, conventional diplomacy can become hard power.
Doing so restricts tourist and business travel to a country and it also curbs economic as well as political relations with the nation.
The ability to reason with a nation's leaders or use other diplomatic strategies is undermined by breaking diplomatic relations.
It makes it hard for us to get valuable information about what's happening in a nation and to have a presence there.
One of the most important arenas for traditional diplomacy is the United Nations.
It was established in 1945 by the victors of World War II.
The United Nations has been frustrated in achieving progress despite its promise as a forum for world peace.
Critics say the UN has either avoided important global issues or has been unable to tackle them.
The world and communist nations were hostile to the U.S.
The permanent members of the U.N. Security Council--the United States, China, Russia, Britain, and France--usually work in harmony to resolve global crises.
The United Nations' assumption of responsibilities in the Persian Gulf War and its extensive peacekeeping missions in Cyprus and Lebanon have been notable examples of respect for the United Nations.
The World Food Program and the United Nations High Commission for Refugees are considered to be major successes in fighting poverty and diseases.
The UN was involved in 15 diff erent missions as of early 2012 and one of them was to help Haiti recover from a 2010 storm.
The U.N. is corrupt and wasteful, and other nations do not fulfill their obligations, according to some members of Congress.
The Security Council gives its members too much power, according to the United Nations.
Russia vetoes strong U.N. resolutions to curb the humanitarian crisis in Syria.
Russia argued that the rebels were to blame for the crisis.
The United States is seen as the "Great Satan" by some of its enemies.
Bush wasn't worried about the U.S. image abroad.
President Franklin Roosevelt created the Offi ce of War Information early in World War II, which in turn established the Voice of America program to broadcast pro-U.S. information into Nazi Germany.
The creation of the U.S. Information Agency was a result of the Campaign of Truth launched by President Harry Truman.
Public diplomacy is a blend of propaganda techniques and information warfare.
To cast the enemy in a less favorable light among its supporters, mold the image of a confl ict such as the war in Afghanistan, and clarify the ultimate goals of U.S. foreign policy are three basic goals.
The United States tried to convince the people of Iran that their leader was moving the nation toward war with a nuclear weapon.
More than 100 countries have been aided by the United States through contributions to various U.N. development funds.
$400 billion has been provided by the United States to foreign countries.
It spent less than half of what it spent in 1985 on foreign aid in recent years.
Israel, Egypt, Ukraine, Jordan, India, Russia, South Africa, and Haiti are some of the countries the United States deems to be of strategic importance to national security.
The nation's budget will be reallocated to nations that are central to the war on terrorism in the future.
Most foreign aid is spent in the United States, where it pays for the purchase of U.S. services and products being sent to those countries.
It is a subsidy for U.S. companies and their employees.
According to the American public, the United States spends more on foreign aid than it actually does.
This exercise of both soft and hard power has resulted in fair elections, a free press, and a peaceful recent years.
It was a part of the protests.
It is difficult to build a nation.
The U.S. has been involved in these for a long time, usually through large injections of foreign aid.
The lessons it learned at the Revolutionary War are still applied in pendence and removing the British from power.
When World War II ended, it took longer to rebuild the roads because of the deep divisions within countries that had been bombed.
During the war, dictators use their power into rubble.
It helped to build strong support within their countries, and often economies that had been devastated by labor shortages use heavy military force to suppress calls for democ and address the unemployment, hunger, and homeless from their citizens.
Syrian president Bashar al-Assad used every military in honor of World War II general George C. Marshall as part of a program called the Marshall Plan.
The Marshall Plan was a stunning foreign policy heavy tanks and snipers to kill hundreds of protestors in success, particularly in helping the United States assassinate communism.
The execution of his own soldiers who refused to cult is arguably more difficult.
The countries that participated in the Marshall Plan fired on the protesters.
The rebels had the basic institutions of democracy as of November 2012 and were still fighting with no end to the war in sight.
It is still a noble goal.
A wounded child is being treated at a makeshift hospital.
A recent poll of U.S. citizens found that few supported increased foreign aid.
Foreign aid should be kept at the same level.
There is a lack of information regarding actual U.S. spending.
According to a recent CNN survey, 20 percent of Americans think foreign aid accounts for 30 percent of the federal budget.
The total is less than 1 percent.
The most vocal advocates of foreign aid are the State Department.
The vital role foreign aid plays in the advancement of U.S. interests has been recognized by the presidents.
Critics note that U.S. foreign aid has subsidized the most autocratic and most effort to change that nation's policies.
Defenders say that corruption is inevitable.
The United States has used economic pressure to punish other nations.
More than 100 times in the past 50 years, it has employed economic sanctions.
The sanctions on Libya helped end the nuclear weapons program, while the sanctions on South Africa helped end apartheid.
Sanctions on Cuba have not been very effective in dislodging that nation's dictatorship.
The recent sanctions against Iran have not been able to stop it from developing a nuclear weapon.
Economic sanctions have varied over the years.
It can be costly to U.S. businesses and workers.
The breakdown of soft power is referred to as war.
Since 1789, the United States has used military force in other nations on an average of almost once a year.
John Kerry argued that the Iraq War was the time in history when the United States went to war because it chose to, not because it had to, but because of a clear threat.
It didn't have to go to war against Spain in 1898 or send troops to other countries in World War I.
The use of force is most successful in small and medium-sized countries for short engagements, according to experts.
Authors updated the fi gures on May 26, 2003
Military action is not always visible to the public.
During the Cold War, the United States engaged in covert operations, including early intervention in Vietnam.
After covert activities in Cuba and other countries were discovered, public opposition and new congressional controls were put in place.
As the number of women in the armed forces has increased, so has the number of women who are allowed to serve only in support units.
6 percent of U.S. forces who served during the announcement that women would be allowed to take first Iraq War in 1991 were tuted by the Defense Department.
The Iraq War took place from 2003 to 2011.
Iraq and Afghanistan have been very dangerous in recent years due to the use of high technology weapons and the need for tight coordination of air, land, and sea opera diers.
The women killed in tions, which can blur the lines between support and Iraq and Afghanistan, did not die in combat operations.
Under a 1994 Defense Department order, women can be given fly combat aircraft to and from airfields, to protect the order to engage in combat.
Opponents argue that men should be allowed to rior to women because they are physically superior to women.
After all, they go through the same boot camps tech jobs in combat, there is nothing high-tech about as men, and they learn how to use the same weapons.
The armed services are struggling to recruit new soldiers and opponents believe that men are better suited to win.
Men and the source of future volunteers are concerns.
Recent studies suggest that women in the military face the same discrimination and harassment that men do.
How can the military make sure that physical differences are irrelevant?
Individual nations and groups can challenge its views.
On the other hand, citizens favor open borders, easy movement of imports and exports, short lines at airports, quick access to information, and protection of their privacy.
They want the government to monitor terrorists, detect dangerous cargo, ensure airport security, keep secrets from the enemy, and make sure no one slips through the border to bring harm to the nation.
A careful balance of individual liberty and national interest is required in order to achieve these goals.
Promoting global peace and understanding is one way to prevent the spread of terrorism.
Weapons of mass destruction will not be eliminated without a broad international commitment to action.
Coalition building may be diffi cult, frustrating, and time consuming, but it may be the only option available as the United States has learned during the hard months of combat in Iraq.
The United States has come to realize that it needs help to accomplish its goals after fighting the Iraq War on its own.
People can help the United States achieve its goals by donating, volunteering, or serving in the military, as well as improving the nation's reputation by addressing problems at home.
Through active engagement in the political process, citizens can help change the foreign policy and defense agenda.
The voices can be heard on many issues.
By putting pressure on the federal government, citizens can hold the nation's elected leaders accountable for what they do.
The United States view the world realisticly and idealisti cies that engage in many of the same issues are part of the defense bureaucracy.
Should the and Defense Department all play a role in setting and admin United States act on its own or with the help of other istering foreign policy and defense.
Should the United seek advice from the military through the Joint Chiefs of States, use its military and economic hard power or its dip Staff, who oversee the all-volunteer force?
Soft power uses diplomacy, whereas hard power uses military and services.
Foreign policy and defense options include a mix of hard and controlling weapons of mass destruction such as nuclear soft power, including conventional diplomacy and foreign missiles, fighting terrorism, negotiating peace in the Middle aid, economic sanctions, and military intervention.
Promoting free trade abroad, reducing global warming, and ending the war in Afghanistan are some of the things East promotes.
Congress and the president tend to spend most of their time and money on issues that they don't agree on.
Determine the options for achieving foreign policy and defense goals.
To strengthen the image of the United States, it is necessary to assess the status of each of the issues that program.
A magazine about foreign policy.
The State Department's website has many articles.
There is a place to apply for the foreign service.
There are many free articles.
There are threats to freedom around the world.
Specific events are provided in the news feeds.
We began our effort to create a government by, for, and of the people after independence.
They always knew that passive allegiance to ideals and rights is not enough.
Every generation has a responsibility to nurture these ideals by renewing the community and nation of which it is a part.
The Framers were aware of the decline and rise of ancient Athens.
The funeral oration states that those who take no part in public affairs fail themselves and their community.
According to many Athenians, the city's business was everyone's business.
Athens was a standard of what a civilized city should be.
The Athenians wanted security more than they wanted freedom as time went on.
They lost their security, comfort, and freedom in the end.
Every man has to pay the price for freedom.
If we are to be responsible citizens, we need to be involved in civic life and speak out about certain policies such as same-sex marriage, health care reform, and the reduction of government debt through tax increases and spending cuts.
Our country requires citizens who understand that our well-being is tied to our neighbors, community, and country.
More people are living in conditions of greater political freedom than in the past.
The transition from living under authoritarian rule to shouldering political freedom is often diffi cult, as evidenced by the efforts to form democratic governments in Russia, Egypt, and Honduras.
The recent involvement in Iraq and Afghanistan shows that imposing democracy on societies without supporting values is problematic.
Most people have lived in societies where a small group at the top imposed its will on others.
We don't take for granted the freedom to make decisions.
Americans take their citizenship for granted.
A naturalized citizen needs permanent residence, a lengthy application, a civics and literacy test, and an oath of allegiance.
A group of people pledge their allegiance to the United States during a ceremony.
It's important that elected leadership and constitutional structures and protections are active, committed citizens.
Obligation and freedom go together.
Both liberty and duty go together.
The answers to a nation's problems don't come from producing a perfect constitution or a few larger-than-life leaders.
Encouraging a nation of attentive and active citizens who will set aside their professional and private ambitions, care about the common concerns of the Republic, and strive to make democracy work is the answer.
State governments should not interfere with interstate commerce and property rights.
The Framers wanted to protect the people from too much government.
A limited government that could accomplish essential tasks was what the ey wanted.
The solution was to divide the power of the national government and make it responsive to the voters.
The majority of citizens want a government that promotes social justice.
Our commitment to liberty and freedom is something we want to keep.
We want a government that protects minorities.
In a world full of change and violence, we want to protect our nation.
We want to protect the rights of the poor.
Our democracy is a system of checks and balances.
The government has to balance individual liberties with the needs of society.
The USA PATRIOT Act allowed the government to collect more data, but at the expense of individual liberty.
The Act was renewed in 2006 despite being criticized by both conservatives and liberals.
The repeal of such provisions as indefi nite detainment of suspected terrorists has failed.
The proper relationship between voters and elected offi cials is not easy to work out.
There is a proposal to increase the role of direct popular participation in decision making through greater use of tools such as the initiative, referendum, or recall.
Direct participation in decision making will enhance the dignity, self-respect, and understanding of individuals by giving them responsibility for the decisions that shape their lives, according to its advocates.
Direct participation will act as a safeguard against undemocratic and antidemocratic forms of government and prevent the replacement of democracy by a dictatorship or tyranny.
Interests can be defended by the people they are concerned with.
There are more and more places for the public to interact with each other.
Some people prefer to vote online in Oregon and other places.
Digital town halls are possible.
In the 2008 and 2012 elections, large numbers of voters communicated with each other and with the candidates via the Internet.
The Internet is an important fund-raising tool and will likely grow in importance over time.
News and political advertising can be found on the Internet.
The United States has shifted toward greater direct democracy, and this trend is likely to continue.
All citizens over the age of 18 have the right to vote since the nation's founding.
The Framers designed a system that limited the use of direct representation.
The House and Senate are directly elected.
Direct primaries allow voters to decide the nominees for federal offi ce.
Legal and technological advances allow for more direct participation from average citizens, but they do not replace the elected government.
We still need elected offi cials to make compromises for policy and action.
We need elected legislatures to digest complicated information and conduct impartial hearings to air competing points of view.
The size of our country and the complexity of the problems we face mean we must delegate decision making to elected officials.
People can't spend hours taking part in every decision that affects their lives.
The United States has more elections for offices than any other democracy.
Most minority interests and attitudes can be incorporated into our representative institutions by electing representatives in a number of districts.
In the United States, only the candidate with the greatest number of votes wins, but there are other ways to choose representatives.
Austria andDenmark use proportional representation, a system in which each party gets a certain amount of seats in the legislature.
The number of political parties can affect representation.
Ours is a two-party system that knits local constituencies into coalitions that can win elections.
Parties help people participate in democracy.
Our parties respond to people who invest in them.
If you don't like the parties, you can help change the positions and leadership of the party closest to your perspective on government by becoming active.
Legislative districts that are single-member tend to foster a two-party system.
When countries adopt proportional representation, the minor parties have more power.
The question in the U.S. system is if elected offi cials should represent the majority or minority.
The trading, competition, and compromising that must take place in order to reach agreement among the various groups are usually represented by a system that represents coalitions of minorities.
The government tries to satisfy all major interests by giving them a voice in decisions and sometimes a veto over actions, instead of acting for a united popular majority with a fairly defi nite program.
Proponents of this form of representation argue that minority interests should be taken into account because the United States has not yet achieved equality in political access and representation.
The U.S. Congress and many state legislatures are composed of mostly white men.
Critics point to the extent of nonvoting and other forms of nonparticipation.
The two major parties hold a virtual monopoly on party politics, which does not always off er the voters, as low-income individuals are less well organized and aware than upper-income individuals, strong organized groups are biased toward the status quo, and a few corporations dominate television and the press
Critics of this philosophy of representation are concerned that our system of government caters too much to minority interests with built-in procedures designed to curtail legislative majorities.
A Senate rule can allow a minority to block the will of the majority of senators.
A bare majority of the Supreme Court can overturn the will of the majority and prior court decisions.
The steady improvement in recent years in opening up access to the political system can be attributed to the critics who believe that governments should be more directly responsive to political majorities.
Election laws have been changed to make it easier to register and vote.
The Supreme Court upheld most of the campaign finance reform legislation in 2003 because it was cited by Congress as a reason to limit the ability of rich donors.
The debate over campaign fi nance is not over.
There is a dispute over who pays for elections and what limits can be placed on donors.
The Court upheld limits on election activity in 2003 but reversed itself in 2010.
Wealthy activists funding campaigns through Super PACs and other organizations increased in the 2012 elections as a direct result of that decision.
The debate continues as to how to balance liberty, equality, and the need for legitimacy in elections.
By this point, you realize that democracy has to mean more than popular government and majority rule.
There is diff ering views about the public interest in a democracy.
The role of the Politician has different views about elected offi cials.
We suspect that politicians are ambitious, scheming, unprincipled, opportunistic, and corrupt.
Even though we may think that the ceholders are only trying to win our vote, we still like them because they are friendly and bright.
George Washington, Lincoln, Eisenhower, and Reagan are all well-known today.
We have to put the problem in perspective.
People in all democracies expect too much from politicians and distrust those who have power.
Public offi ceholders tax us, regulate us, and conscript us.
Some today condemn those who compromise, assuming that their point of view enjoys broad support and overlooking the reality that to govern, our representatives often need to make compromises.
It is possible for individuals to make a difference in shaping policy on the local, state, national, and international levels, whether the policy be about drunk driving, early childhood medical care, land mines, or using the courts to influence a policy agenda.
Politics and politicians are important to our freedom, security, and prosperity.
There is no need for people to disagree about the need for government.
Practical demands on government are translated into fundamental needs by political leaders.
We like to say "it's all politics as usual" when government fails to address pressing problems such as the national debt, unemployment, and health care access.
The observation implies that things would improve if we didn't have politicians.
There is no freedom without politics.
A nation of followers can never be a democracy.
A democratic nation requires educated, skeptical, caring, engaged, and conscientious citizens who will recognize when change is needed and have the courage to bring about necessary reforms.
Our system depends on individuals willing to study and speak out on issues, become involved in political parties, and run for and serve in the military.
Power may be wielded corruptly tomorrow if experience is to be believed.
When a policy is wrong or the rights of other citizens are diminished, it is necessary to protest.
Democracy is based on a realistic view of human nature.
It is not unpatriotic to criticize offi cial error.
Democracy is possible because of our capacity for justice.
Democracy is necessary because of ourinclination to injustice.
The forum where, by acting together, citizens become and remain free.
The legal existence of an opposition is the ultimate test of a democratic system.
A free organization of opposing views is a characteristic of a constitutional democracy.
Good sense isn't yet recognized a chance to be heard, so freedom to speak nonsense is basic for political expression and dissent.
To be afraid of public debate is to be afraid of self-government.
Jeff erson had a lot of faith in education.
The average person has only to be informed to act wisely because he believed that people are endowed with an innate sense of justice.
Jefferson said that only an educated and enlightened democracy can hope to survive.
Knowledge of public aff is one of the best predictors of voting.
People who are most attentive are more likely to see government and politics as necessary and important.
You now know how the political process works.
You've gained an appreciation for how individuals and groups can push or block agendas.
Many people don't participate in politics or elections because they don't like it.
When people combine knowledge with political activity, they expand their knowledge.
Remember that in the last half-century, restaurants, motels, and landlords used to discriminate on the basis of race.
In several states, there was racial segregation in education.
Poor whites and blacks were denied access to voting.
In the workplace and government, women were treated differently.
Civil rights legislation and court cases have changed.
The legacies of Rac ism and other discrimination from our national life are not erased, but as historian Arthur M. says.