The outcome of elections and the political platforms of the Democrats and Republicans have been influenced by third political parties.
Smaller parties and their leaders still wage a vocal campaign even though they have no chance of winning.
The third political parties can be described as ideological, single-issue oriented, economically motivated, and personality driven.
They are called Socialist, Libertarian, Right to Life, Populist, Bull Moose, and United We Stand.
They all have the same goal in mind--influence the outcome and direction of an election.
Let's take a look at some of the more successful third-party attempts.
A political leader who could not get the nomination from his party is the modern third-party impact.
George Wallace's American Independent Party received 13 percent of the vote and 46 electoral votes in the 1968 election, and that contributed to the defeat of Humphrey in a very close election.
The outcome of the 1980 election was unaffected by John Anderson's defection from the Republican Party and his decision to run as a third-party candidate.
The nature of the 1992 presidential race was changed by the announcement by billionaire Texas H. Ross Perot that he was entering the race and using his own money to wage the campaign.
If his supporters could get his name on the ballot in all 50 states, he would officially enter the race.
He dropped out of the race on the day Bill Clinton was nominated.
He reentered the heated contest in October, appeared in the presidential debates, and struck a chord with close to 20 percent of the electorate.
His call for reducing the nation's deficit was a big part of the campaign.
He formed the United We Stand Party to continue his campaign after he did not win an electoral vote.
In 1996 the party nominated a candidate.
He got less than 10 percent of the popular vote.
His party became divided when it nominated Pat Buchanan for president.
He got less than one percent of the vote.
People gradually moving away from their parties has become more of a trend in today's view of party loyalty if party realignment signifies the shifts in the history of party eras.
The shift to a more neutral and ideological view of party identification has been called party dealignment.
Strong party loyalists believe that the party matches their ideology.
The shift of traditional Southern Democrats to the Republican Party happened because many voters thought the Republicans were more conservative than the Democrats.
Women activists, civil rights supporters, and people who believe in abortion are part of the Democratic coalition because the Democratic Party supported these issues in their national platform.
The ability of the parties to raise funds and motivate their workers has made party organization and party support stronger than party identification.
Democrats and Republicans are seen as having few differences.
Ideology is more important than party identification.
Party platforms are a better indicator of party identification than traditional measures.
The 2008 national party platform of the Democratic and Republican Parties shows the effect ideological differences had on voter support.
There are a few examples.
It is interesting to note that when actual legislation is proposed, there is very rarely bloc voting on these issues.
Political labels are not always accurate.
When it comes to the role of government in regulating business, you can either be a civil libertarian or a social liberal.
It won't make a difference whether a candidate is a Democrat or Republican if they have the same issue.
A 2006 poll asked people if they were liberal, moderate, or conservative.
A plurality of people considered themselves moderate, compared to a third who considered themselves conservative.
When applied to actual issues, these general areas translate into liberal/conservative differences.
Defense cuts are favored by liberals on foreign policy.
Conservatives favor the right to life while liberals favor freedom of choice for abortions.
Conservatives favor moments of silent prayer while liberals don't like school prayer at all.
Conservatives favor a more laissez-faire position while liberals view the government as a means of dealing with society's problems.
Conservatives have been critical of many of the Warren Court decisions, and liberals have been more sympathetic to the rights of the accused.
There is a clouding up of which party is liberal and which party is conservative when you apply these standards to specific bills.
President Clinton was referred to as a New Democrat.
It's not clear if this was a public relations ploy to make Clinton and the Democrats appear to be more conservative or if the traditional New Deal of the party was being modified.
The politicians who are on the extremes of the political spectrum are Democrats such as Tom Harkin and Joseph Biden and Republicans such as Tom Coburn and Newt Gingrich.
There are serious differences between the parties.
The differences are due to the fact that one party is in control of the agenda and the other party is out of power trying to keep their ideas alive.
Big business to the Republicans and labor unions to the Democrats are still attracted to the two parties.
A new party emerged prior to the 2010 election.
The Tea Party was formed by a combination of grassroots Americans and former leaders of the Republican Party.
Even though they did not officially petition to get on state ballots, they held a party convention and endorsed many congressional candidates in primary races, defeating a number of Republican Senators and Congressmen and women.
Many Republican congressional and gubernatorial candidates were endorsed by the party after the primaries.
SarahPalin became one of their biggest supporters after embracing the movement.
The boundaries of state and federal constitutions must be followed by all forms of government.
Pork and Earmarks must be reversed and repealed.
The national budget needs to be balanced.
Spending cuts should be used to balance the budget.
Personal responsibility is implied by Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness.
All elected and appointed officials are employed by We the People.
Prosperity is killed by excessive tax burdens.
The future of our children, grandchildren, and great-grandchildren are being stolen by excessive national debt.
The major political party is not clean on these issues.
Both Democrats and Republicans have taxed too much.
The founding documents of the American government, such as the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, and the Bill of Rights, are not appreciated by the American public.
We hope to bring sanity to the election and legislative processes by educating the American people on the foundations of our history.
It's not clear if the Tea Party movement will be a factor in the 2012 presidential election or if the candidates who they supported will carry out the principles of the party.
Both national and local political parties exist.
Their organization has a hierarchy.
Grass roots politics on the local level involves door-to-door campaigns to get signatures on petitions, campaigns run through precinct and ward organizations, county committees, and state committees headed by a state chairman.
The influence of local party bosses like Boss Tweed has lessened.
The national political scene is dominated by the outcome of national conventions, which give direction to the national chairperson, the spokesman of the party, and the person who heads the national committee.
The local party machine uses patronage to keep members in line and reward loyal members with jobs.
Maintaining party discipline is helped by the organization of national political parties.
The outcome of elections is influenced by local party organizations and their party machines.
The organization of the national political party is driven by the nominating process.
Even though the national nominating convention still selects presidential candidates, the role of the party caucus and party primary has grown more important.
Publicizing the party's position is one of the functions of the national convention.
Party rules and procedures are also adopted.
This can be an important part of the restructuring of a political party.
The McGovern-Frasier Commission brought significant representation changes to the party after the disastrous 1968 Democratic Convention.
Future conventions were more democratic because of it.
The procedures aim to include more minority representation.
15 percent of the delegates at the Democratic convention were superdelegates in 1982, a commission further reformed the representation of the convention.
Walter Mondale was able to get his nomination in 1984 and Al Gore was able to get his nomination in 2000.
The 2008 Democratic primaries were dominated by superdelegates.
Neither Barack Obama nor Hillary Clinton had a majority of the delegates in the primary elections.
The superdelegates gave Obama a majority and enabled him to win the nomination.
Some people feel that the democratic reforms of the McGovern Commission have been reduced by these delegates.
The Republicans were concerned about regenerating party identification after the Watergate debacle.
They were more interested in making the Republican Party more efficient than in reform.
Their conventions are well planned and well run.
Critics said that the 1992 convention was dominated by the conservative group of the party.
The lesson was learned.
Political scientists concluded that it would be impossible to make a similar mistake because the Republican and Democratic Conventions were so scripted.
The governing body of the political party is the national committee.
It responds to the direction of the national chairperson.
The presidential candidates pick the chairperson.
The real leader of the party in power is the president.
If gains or losses occur in the elections, the chairperson often takes the blame.
The national chairperson's primary duties are to raise money, foster party unity, recruit new voters and candidates, and prepare for the next election.
Both parties work with their national committees to win Senate and House seats that are up for grabs.
Political parties are successful if they involve the average citizen in the political process.
The future is not bright if you develop the vote as the key criteria.
The American electorate has not turned out in large numbers in local or national elections.
Family income, age, education, party identification, and race are some of the factors that affect voter turnout.
There will be a full discussion of this topic.
You need to look at the continuum of political involvement to answer this question.
The majority of the electorate participates in the political process in conventional ways.
Someone is running for office.
Less than half of those who are eligible to vote in most elections actually do.
Civil disobedience and protest are involved in unconventional participation.
The political process has been influenced by activists such as Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was passed by elected officials.
The future of political parties depends on how closely associated the voters are with the party.
Traditional party politics are not bright in the future.
There has been a decline in party membership and an increase in the number of independent voters.
There has been more and more ticket splitting, where voters cast their ballots based on each individual candidate running for a particular office.
The impact of the media on the campaign has weakened the ability of the party to get their message out.
The need for elected officials to use traditional party resources has been reduced by the impact of special-interest groups.
If the party is out of power, there are alternative views.
The winner of the election must accept the consequences if they fail to govern the country.
The model of responsible party would help redefine the importance of political parties.
Even though there is a decline in the importance of political parties, it is not likely that our two-party system will change to a multiparty or ideological party system in the future.
The way in which the nomination is obtained is included in the process.
The people who support the party are the constituency.
The agenda is what the party supports.
Legislators take actions that result in a policy.
One of the outcomes of government is the making of public policy.
The United States has always been dominated by a two-party system even though there are many political parties on the ballot.
There have been times when a third party has been influential in the American party system.
The two-party system is not described in Choice D.
The phrase critical election is a hint.
The start of a party era should be evoked by this.
People are moving away from both parties.
The other choices don't result from the situation described.
The Democrats' base is in the Northeast.
Southern conservatives identify with the Republican Party.
The religious right favors Republican candidates.
The answer is Choice D because the Republicans dominate Southern politics.
Choices D and E are not related to personal values.
They are the results of people moving from one party to another.
Before national conventions became more democratic, party bosses molded the platform.
The local and state parties send delegates who are involved in determining the platform.
The people who vote on the party platform are the delegates to the national convention.
The Great Depression and Franklin Roosevelt's election show a change from Republican to Democratic dominance.
If you knew that the Republicans controlled the Senate during the Reagan administration, you would be able to pick A.
Democrats and Republicans could be identified as party identification from 1960 to 2000.
Some people in the population have identified themselves as Independents.
There have been shifts of party loyalty among these groups.
The country was optimistic after the election of John Kennedy and after the assassination of Kennedy.
The distrust the American people had with both the Democratic and Republican Parties resulted in an increase in independent identification.
After Nixon resigned as president, there was an increase in Independent enrollee.
After Reagan was elected, Republican identification increased again.
Independent status is still attractive to many Democrats and Republicans.
The level of dissatisfaction decreases as the age increases.
The younger generation probably has a more liberal point of view on social issues than the older generation.
There has been a Republican Party era since 1968, and the age factor may have a lot to do with that.
Young voters may be looking for a new party that will meet their needs.
The voter discontent increases as the level of education decreases.
More educated people are more likely to know about the political process.
The political talk shows and C-SPAN show the differences between the parties.
55-60 percent of those who are dissatisfied are either college graduates or have some college education.
Independent voters want a third party because they are fed up with the other two.
Many members of the other parties are calling for a third party.
Party members try to find candidates who reflect their views.
When Ross Perot brought up the deficit as the major issue in his campaign, he was well received by the voters.
With the approval ratings of political parties being so low, the lack of party identification should be sending a message to the Democrats and Republicans.
The emergence of a third major political party seems to be on the horizon.
One point is given for identifying trends from the graph.
From 1994 to 2000 there has been a rise in Independents.