The electric field can be used to explain electric interactions.
You turn on the coffee grinder and suddenly the materials and nonconducting power in that part of the house shuts off.
When you turn on too many appliances that run on a single circuit, a device called a circuit breaker is used to cut off the external supply of electric energy.
The wires are disconnected to prevent them from catching fire.
In this chapter, we will find out.
The charged particles are moving in electric devices.
The human body's nervous system has similar movements.
We will learn how to explain phenomena that involve charged particles.
The two metal spheres have different charges in them.
We'll try to identify common features that relate to transferring electric charge in the new machine experiments.
There is a big spark.
The foil ball needs a small amount of Wimshurst machine and a light alu negative charge from the negative sphere to hit it.
No spark occurs if you remove the foil ball and bring the electric potential energy to the spheres near each other.
Before the bulb touches them, the spheres machine and the leads of a neon are charged and at different potentials.
No spark will occur if you remove the bulb and close the spheres.
The machine started with a negative charge on one sphere and a positive charge on the other.
There was a flow of charge from one sphere to the other.
There were different consequences of the charge flow: a spark of light, a vibrating ball of foil, or the flash of the bulb.
The potential difference between the spheres was zero after the charge flow.
No more movement could occur.
The events in Table 16.1 were only observable because of 1.
Nothing could happen after the discharges occurred.
The water flow analogy is too weak between the spheres.
Three processes happened at once.
We need to learn how to keep the processes happening continuously if we want to convert electrical energy to light or mechanical energy.
There are two containers with water.
Both A and B are almost empty.
The amount of water in container A is similar to the ex cess positive charge on Wimshurst sphere 2, and the difference in water pres sure in the hose is similar to the potential difference between the spheres.
The electric charge flows until the electric potential at each sphere is the same, because the hose provides a pathway for water to flow until the pressure at both ends of the hose is the same.
The amount of water in each container makes the water flow, not the pressure difference.
Imagine a large container with a water flow that stops when the two ends of the water are the same as in the smal container.
Imagine a large sphere A and a small sphere B.
We can make fluid flow continuously by connecting the containers.
A continuous flow from A to B can be achieved by pumping water from B back to A.
In the water analogy, the battery is similar to the pump.
The charged particles are moving through a wire between two locations.
Free electrons are found in the wires and circuit elements in most electric circuits.
The particles can be positive or negative charged.
The water is returned to container A.
The mass of the material is formed by the ion and they are relatively stationary.
A battery creates a constant model, the electrons move chaotically inside the wire, like a cloud of mos potential difference across a neon bulb, on a day when the air is still.
A crystal lattice structure is formed when negative electrons flow through Positive ion.
The electrons move randomly within the wire when there is an electric field.
The electric current is rection.
You can test this phenomenon by connecting electron travel around the circuit to the positive and negative terminal of a battery with a wire.
The direction of electric current in a circuit is determined by the direction of the electrons' drifting motion.
The definition of the direction of the electric current as a flow of positively charged particles is a historical quirk.
Positive charges would move in most situations.
One coulomb per second C/s is the unit of current.
The unit for electric current is a fundamental unit in SI units.
Determine the magnitude and direction of the electric current in the wire.
A water pump can cause water to flow continuously, similar to how a battery can cause a neon bulb to glow continuously.
If the current is positive, the battery can move the charge from the lower electric potential negative terminal to the higher electric potential positive ter minal.
The charge can travel around the external circuit and cause the bulb to light up.
The potential difference is maintained by means of batteries.
If you connect a neon bulb to the battery terminals, the bulb will glow and get a little warmer as work done by the battery results in the production of light and an increase in the thermal energy of the external circuit.
The work would be converted into thermal energy and light energy in the toaster, which would glow red, if you connected it to the battery.
The emf of AA, C, and D batteries is 1.5 V. The cal size of the battery is not related to the emf but to its storage capacity.
A sketch of a motor is shown.
There are two potential energy levels for the battery.
This work is called minals.
The battery has an emf of 9.0 V.
The location begins to decrease.
After leaving the battery graph for an imaginary positively charged particle at B, the imaginary positively charged particle travels through the circuit (see figure on the next along a wire to the motor at C).
The figure below shows the smal de- motor.
The electric potential decrease occurs across the motor.
The electric potential inside the battery increases when passing through the two motor circuit.
An electric circuit is a system of devices that free electrons to ionize neon atoms.
The continuous flow produced when the electrons rejoin the ionized neon atoms is known as light.
The electrical connections among them are important, and just having those elements next to each other does not make a circuit.
We look at how to make a circuit.
Common indicators of current in a circuit are lightbulbs.
When electric charge passes through lightbulbs, they convert electrical energy into light and thermal energy.
Incandescent bulb sider two types of bulbs--neon and incandescent--that use different mecha- Current through the metal filament stimulates the nisms for this energy conversion.
The leads are outside the bulbs.
Some electrons will recombine with ion and emit light when they travel in opposite directions because of the potential difference.
We still see a flash of light even if the neon bulb only lasts for a short time.
The metal part of the bulb is not a gas.
The bulb is extremely hot when there is current through the filament because of the interactions of free electrons with the lattice of atoms.
We can see light when the bulb is hot.
Neon bulbs are relatively cool to the touch.
An incandescent bulb has no outside leads.
On one side of the base of the bulb, there is one terminal, and on the other side there is a second terminal.
A flashlight bulb glows.
A wire connects a bulb terminal to a battery terminal.
The battery terminal has a wire connecting it to the bulb terminals.
The two bulb terminals are connected to the two battery terminals.
The bulb terminals are connected to the battery terminals.
Only one bulb terminal is touching the battery in connection 6.
There are certain conditions that need to be met in order to have a circuit with an electric current.
You can trace a path of an imaginary positive charge moving from the positive terminal of the battery to the negative terminal, either in a real circuit or in the circuit you drew on paper.
Conducting material has to be passed along the path.
Use this rule to check the circuits in which the bulb did not light up.
Drawing realistic likenesses of actual batteries and bulbs is inconvenient to represent electric circuits.
Scientists and engineers use simplified symbols for elements in an electric circuit.
The symbols represent a longer line than the negative terminal.
The terminal middle is negative.
Lightbulbs and toasts are examples of resistors.
There are wire devices that allow us to insert air into a path of the circuit to stop the current.
Lightbulbs that measure current through a circuit element are called ammeters.
The water must go through the meter.
An ammeter is connected to measure electric current.
The current you want to measure is the battery.
A wire is connected to an arrangement.
Positive and negative terminals determine the measure potential difference.
The electric potential difference between two points is measured by a voltmeter.
You would measure the pressure difference by looking at the potential difference.
A multimeter combines the functions of an ammeter with a voltmeter.
When using a multimeter, make sure you check the settings to make sure it doesn't harm the device.
In magnitude and direction, a variable emf can change.
We build two circuits with different lengths of constantan wire.
We record the current through the potential difference.
The current through Variable emf and potential difference across the constantan wires are what we focus on.
We graph the results.
The current and potential difference change direction.
We have a con ceptual understanding of the relationship we observed in Table 16.3 A larger electric force on the elec trons results in a larger drift velocity and a larger current through the wire.
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For the same potential difference across each wire, there is always 586 Chapter 16 DC Circuits twice as much current through 1 as through 2.
Circuit elements with higher conductance need a difference in potential across them to have the same current.
Resistance is the physical quantity that characterizes the degree to which an object resists a current.
When a one-V potential difference is placed across a 1.0-ohm Resistor, it will have a one-A electric current passing through it.
When we write an article.
The method to determine the resistances of different circuit elements is provided by Equation 16.3.
The length of the second wire affects its resistance.
Even though the potential difference across and the current through it change, the resistance of each wire remains constant.
The slopes of the graphs are constant.
As the potential difference increases, the slope of the graph for the lightbulb decreases.
The same increase in current can be caused by a resistor or bulb tential difference.
Increasing potential difference and current is what increases the resistance of the lightbulb.
The resistance of a circuit element depends on the current through it.
The shape of the curve does not change when revers ing the battery's polarity.
Neon bulbs and transistors, which are a fundamental circuit element in computer chips, are ohmic devices, but Constantan wire, nichrome wire, and commercial resistors that are used in many circuit boards, many parts of the human body, geological formations, and salt water are not.
There are two types of ma- non-ohmic diodes that make up a diodes.
The diode's resistance is very high if the potential difference is reversed.
The orientation of the potential difference affects the resistance of the diode.
In circuits where you need the resis tance to be different for each direction of current, dios are useful.
The circuit has four ammeters and five voltmeters.
The meters have the readings shown in the figure.
A large change in potential causes a small and that same current enters the 50@ resistor and leaves it.
Current is a large resistance and not to scale.
There are two zero readings across a connecting wire and a closed switch.
Let's use Ohm's law to make predictions about the meter readings.
The experiment didn't match the prediction, but it did measure 8.5 V. We need to either revise or examine the law.
We need to evaluate the reasoning that led to the prediction when there is a mismatch.
On first glance, there is no current in the circuit when the switch is open.
The battery should be the first thing we look at.
When there is no current in the circuit, the battery has a different potential with an open switch.
The electric potential meter 1 makes sense because of the non-zero reading of volt Minus signs.
The potential of the positive terminal of the stops becomes infinite when the switch is open.
We can't apply rela battery.
The current in the line with the bulb is zero because of a burned out lightbulb.
It's like an open switch.
There is a 120-V potential difference between the bulb canister and the wall if the light switch is on.
The battery is equal to the potential difference across tery if the commercial resistor is connected to a 9-V bat.
When the battery is connected to the same resistors, the current through it is less than one A.
We are 0.2 A.
We can deduce that the emf of the battery is equal to the resistance of the commer if we assume that the resistance of the commer is independent of the potential difference between the resistors.
Most of the analyses have applied to circuits with one element.
There are many elements in real-world circuits.
We learn about common arrangements of circuit elements and how they affect the electric current in the circuits.
The bulbs are numbered.
There are multiple bulbs in a series.
When the circuit is complete, the lightbulb is lit.
There must be less current through the bulbs after the other one to the battery but dimmer than in experiment 1.
There must be less current through the bulbs in series to the same battery than there is in experiment 2.
The brightness of the bulbs in a series is the same.
Adding more bulbs decreases the brightness of the bulbs.
The first pattern in Table 16 makes sense if we assume that the magni Bright light tude of the current through a bulb affects how bright the bulb is.
The flow of charged electrons is called electriccur rent.
There is less current in a circuit when there is more bulbs in a series.
Adding more bulbs will make the bulbs dimmer.
A battery isn't a source of constant current.
The charged particles in the circuit do not go through all the bulbs, but only one.
The bulb has its own current.
An electron goes through one of the bulbs on the other side of the circuit.
There are multiple bulbs in parallel.
The bulb is lit when the circuit is complete.
Since both bulbs have the same brightness, they must have the same current through them.
ference across them as a single bulb
Multiple bulbs are connected to the same battery.
Qualitative investigations of electric circuits can now be summarized.
Changing the number of circuit elements changes the whole circuit.
Depending on the arrangement of circuit elements, the total current may decrease or remain the same.
There are four identical bulbs in the circuit shown in the figure.
The bright est bulb is listed first in terms of brightness.
When the switch is not closed, bulbs 1, 2, and 4 are more resistant to series.
Charge flow is different when the switch is closed.
We expect that bulbs 2 and 3 are in paral el and that bulb 1 will be the bright one.
With the same current, it should be equal.
The bulbs 1 and 4 will be brighter because of the sum of the currents in 2 and 3.
There are ways to wire house hold appliances.
A computer, a lightbulb, and a washing machine are turned on.
The devices can't be in a series.
There is a washing machine.
It is possible that parallel wiring is a possibility.
The devices are arranged in different ways.
One device turns off others.
This sort of arrangement is not possible in your house.
parallel is the only choice that is consistent with the way devices in your house behave.
We have mostly used the same lightbulbs in our experiments, but the bulb's brightness depends on something else.
The brighter one is B.
It is more than the current through a bulb that determines its brightness.
We will learn how other quantities affect a bulb's brightness.
The bulb and wires are an object outside of the system.
Bulb A is brighter than bulb B in both circuits.
The electric potential energy is continuously converted into other forms of energy when there is current through a circuit element.
Power is the physical quantity for the rate of energy conversion.
The power units in the above are correct.
When they talked about wall sockets, they achieved similar results when they used alcohol instead of water.
Examine the different forms.
The top and bottom versions say that the power is proportional to the resistance of the circuit element.
There is no contradiction because the current through and potential difference are not independent from each other.
Joule's law can be used to explain the experiment if we assume that the brightness of a bulb is related to its power.
Based on the book.
Predicting the brightness of light bulbs.
When we close the supplies with a switch.
We observe the switches if you don't close across them.
It seems that the conclusion in the table is not in line with reality.
We buy lightbulbs according to their wattage and not their resistance.
The resistance of a 100W bulb under the same conditions is 144.
This makes sense.
The 60-W bulb is brighter than the home wiring system.
The 60-W bulb will use more power and be brighter than the 100W bulb.
Electric power companies charge their customers according to the amount of electric potential energy that is transformed into other energy forms in the devices that the customer uses.
The joule is not used by utility companies.
A kilowatt-hour is the electric potential energy that a 1000@W device transforms to other energy forms in one hour.
A variety of circuit elements are used in electric circuits, such as switches, ground power supplies, and more.
We develop techniques to determine the electric current through each circuit.
A very simple circuit is what we start with.
Figure potential around an electric circuit shows the changing electric in electric potential as we move.
There is a zero charge across the battery circuit loop.
We can test this pattern through the resistor.
It varies 60 times per second and the potential difference is not constant.
The loop pattern can be used to predict the potential difference between points A and B in the electric circuit shown.
There are two possible routes.
To determine the current in the circuit shown in the terminal, we use the loop pat- through the battery from its negative to positive tern.
The wires and bat have negligible resistance compared to the resistors.
The 10-V battery has a larger emf than the no mat 4-V battery, so it's a good idea to check that.
The current in the circuit is what we take.
When we use a voltmeter.
The loop pat is used to see if the outcome and prediction are consistent.
There was an open switch on the left side before position A.
The potential difference was negative since we moved from the positive to the switch.
The Table 16.4 can now be determined.
We used the assumed direction of the current to indicate the signs of the electric potential changes across the resistors.
You buy a battery.
You build the circuit shown in the figure.
This explains why the current is less than 1.8 A.
The battery has a reading of 7.5 V and the resistor has a reading of - 7.5 V.
The measurements are unexpected.
The figure has been operating for a while.
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