After a long struggle African Americans began to experience major victories against the deeply entrenched system of segregation and discrimination.
The legal victories that ended the statutory segregation of schools were some of the most prominent victories of the civil rights movement.
He told the white power structure that they would not obey their evil laws.
African American residents of Hattiesburg register to vote.
African Americans are vulnerable to violent reprisals if their names are published in the newspaper for two weeks in a row.
Pressures for social change boiled over into protests around the world in 1968.
As decolonization swept much of the world, the preceding two decades offered an example of how much people could change.
From Cuba to the remaining colonies in Africa and the war in Southeast Asia, there was a lot of struggle.
White supremacism and racial segregation were being dismantled in the United States.
Young protesters looked at their world to see how much more was needed.
The streets and squares of the world are filled with protesters.
The "Prague Spring" was a brief period of liberal reform and loosened political controls in the Czech Republic.
The press and freedom of speech were restored by him.
The leaders of the Soviet Union and other eastern European states were worried that they would face the same demands for reform from their own citizens.
There were protests against Communism in Poland and Yugoslavia.
Students in France went on strike.
Student protests erupted when the government responded with harsh punishments.
A general strike was called by labor unions.
The generation that was raised in postwar Europe was captured by the strikes.
The time was ripe for more far-ranging change for many of them because their governments' postwar socialist reforms were incomplete.
Student movements erupted across Europe.
Students in Latin America rose in protest.
Students in Argentina went on strike to protest against the military dictatorship that had been in place since 1966.
The protesters took control of the city with the help of factory workers.
The military dictatorship in Brazil had been in power for 50 years.
In Mexico City, where the 1968 Olympic games would be held, students used the international visibility of the event to protest.
Cuba's example of swift social transformation inspired the Latin American students to challenge their regimes.
The ongoing U.S. military intervention in Vietnam was met with growing opposition.
The Security Treaty that bound Japan and the United States was challenged by protesters in Japan.
Protests against the Vietnam War and against the draft erupted on college campuses across the United States and in its ally in the conflict, Australia.
Civil rights marches in the South have been extended to protests against discrimination and police violence as a result of the antiwar movement in the United States.
Protesters around the world were aware of each other and were participating in a worldwide movement against the abuses of the established order.
Che Guevara called for "two, three or many Vietnams" of resistance against imperialism.
Protesters and reformers faced violent reactions from powerful political and economic groups.
Conservatives tried to slow or even reverse the dramatic changes that had taken place in the postwar era.
The Czech demonstrators threw torches and waved flags in an attempt to stop a tank as the Soviet army crushed the protests of the Prague Spring in 1968.
In October 1968, the Soviet deployment of tanks in Czechoslovakia crushed the Prague Spring and led to the persecution of the Spring's supporters.
In Mexico, Argentina, and Brazil, military and paramilitary groups launched violent campaigns against protesting students and workers, such as the Mexican government's shooting of protesters in Tlatelolco before the Olympics.
Martin Luther King, Jr., and other civil rights leaders were killed in the United States.
Revolution was met with violence around the world.
The decades after the Second World War were an era of rebuilding, a term that had different meanings for different people.
In Europe, the Soviet Union, and Japan, rebuilding meant clearing the rubble from the destruction of the war.
The political and economic paths in Germany and Japan were different from those forged by nationalist fervor.
To confront each other in the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union needed to develop a military and ideological complex.
In the Soviet Union, it meant finding ways to reform the system of political terror, and in the United States it meant trying to overcome the structures of white supremacy.
In Asia, Africa, and the Middle East, the idea of rebuilding meant dismantling European colonialism to establish independent states.
Replacing not just colonial institutions but colonial mentalities, patterns of production, and forms of education, and developing ways of relating that were not based on terms dictated by colonizers was required.
Politician worked to decolonize the state in a process that was slow and difficult.
Latin America needed to find ways to overcome the legacies of colonialism and neocolonialism.
Finding the means to industrialize meant overcoming the patterns of dependency and under development diagnosed by Latin American intellectuals and social scientists.
The decades after 1945 showed how much could be achieved through mass movements.
There was more work to be done to overcome poverty, under development, and neocolonialism.
The age of revolution in the late 18th and early 19th century can be compared to the age of the Second World War.
The events that had an impact across the globe seemed to accelerate history.
The age of revolution saw the independence of the United States and most of Spanish America as well as the Haitian and French Revolutions, and people were no longer tied to rulers.
The Chinese Revolution and the independence of India and Pakistan ushered in new political ideologies and economic systems in Asia.
Liberation movements across the globe sought to end imperial domination and remove social boundaries imposed by white racism, but also to make deeper changes in how people perceive themselves and their societies.
The Enlightenment ideals about liberal individual rights that were promoted by the French and American Revolutions owe a lot to these ideas.
The social revolutions in countries like China and Cuba and the independence movements across Africa, Asia, and the Middle East were the first steps in remaking societies that had been created by centuries of colonialism.
Poverty, domination of economies by foreign powers, limited industrialization, and weak states were some of the legacies of colonialism that societies continued to face in the future.
Explain the significance of each item.
There is a clearly written introduction to the history of the continent.
One of America's finest journalist-historians wrote the last, and perhaps best, history.
A survey of Iranian history and politics by a leading scholar.
There is a very accessible study of modern independent Africa.
The roots and course of China's Communist revolution are explored in this documentary.
The series takes a detailed look at the Cold War's European origins, global reach, and resolution.
The 1947 UN partition of Palestine is examined.
The film Chronicling the Algerian war for independence from France is a rich reflection on guerrilla warfare and the anticolonial struggle.
The phone conversations between the U.S. president and the Soviet premier were the focus of the movie.
Two films explore Greece's descent into dictatorship in the 1960s and the U.S. support for torture in Latin America.
An armed female soldier of the Sandinista NationalLiberation Front picking coffee beans in her military camouflage is depicted in street art.
In the 70s, two currents ran against each other.
In decolonization, revolutions, and mass social movements the radicalism of liberation continued.
Both in the West and in nationalist regimes around the world, women's movements achieved important successes in pressing for reproductive rights.
The most dramatic phase of decolonization in Africa and black civil rights in the United States had succeeded, but the hard work of making new nations function or of achieving racial equality continued.
The influence of this current was not obvious in the early 1970s, but it was obvious by the 1990s.
There was a resurgence of liberal political and economic ideology.
After the Second World War, the United States had championed liberal economic policies and global free trade, but this objective ran against the desires of other countries to protect and promote their own industrialization and economic development.
In the last decades of the century, the U.S. drive for global trade was more successful than the reform movements in the Eastern bloc and Latin America.
Israel and its neighbors Egypt and Syria fought a war in 1973.
The conflict became known as the Yom Kippur War because it happened during the Jewish religious holiday of atonement, and as the Ramadan War because it happened during the Muslim month of fast.
The Egyptian and Syrian armies were close to defeating Israel before the U.S. government gave them weapons.
Before the fighting ended, Israel attacked the outskirts of Cairo and Damascus.
The embargo on oil sales to countries that aided Israel was imposed by Arab oil-exporting countries.
The oil embargo, the war in Vietnam, and political conflict in the United States seemed to have a negative effect on the U.S. political and economic influence.
They wanted to raise national revenue to support economic development.
The market for oil was not controlled until the early 1970s.
In response to their support for Israel in the Yom Kippur War, the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries decided to embargo oil sales to the United States and western Europe.
A group of oil-exporting countries formed a group in 1960 to coordinate oil production and raise prices, giving them more power in world affairs.
Despite the embargo, oil remained available in Europe and the United States.
The market was disrupted by the embargo.
The price of oil went from $3 to $12 per barrel overnight.
The U.S. government's inability to reverse the disruption suggested a new world order.
Brazil's military leaders built relations with other countries and distanced themselves from their traditional alliance with the United States.
Brazil stopped exporting to Israel because of fear of reprisal from Arab countries.
If the U.S. could supply us with a million barrels of oil a day, the shift wouldn't be so sudden.
The second oil shock of 1979 was caused by the Iranian revolution that ousted the secular government and brought religious leaders to power.
Stagflation is a combination of economic growth and inflation.
Europe and Japan are dependent on oil imports and use mass transit and bicycles to reduce their energy needs.
In the decade after the first oil shock, countries such as Saudi Arabia deposited their profits in international banks in the United States, which in turn reinvested their deposits into loans for development.
The money was known as petrodollars.
In this economic cycle, consumers around the world paid higher prices for fuel, which resulted in profits for oil exporters, who invested the profits in large banks.
These banks lent the capital to foreign governments.
High energy costs and heavy debts were faced by many industrializing countries.
The global recirculation by international banks of profits from the higher price of oil.
Stagflation and the 1979 second oil shock caused the Federal Reserve Bank to raise interest rates.
Increased interest rates in the United States made it more expensive to borrow money, which slowed economic activity and led to an economic recession.
The recession reduced consumer demand for goods.
The United States was not the only country to experience a recession, as countries that exported to the United States faced reduced demand for their goods and countries that borrowed from U.S. banks saw interest on their debts increase.
The global crisis was caused by the rapid increase in interest on heavy debts.
The world economy was shaped by policies in the 1980s.
The free circulation of capital across national borders was promoted by neoliberalism.
The ability to secure loans in debtor countries depended on their adherence to a set of liberal principles known as the policies that restricted public spending, lowered import barriers, privatized state enterprises, and deregulated markets.
The return to policies intended to promote free markets and the free circulation of capital across national borders began in the 1980s.
In response to the 1980s debt crisis in Latin America, policies were put in place to restrict public spending, lower import barriers, and privatize state enterprises.
The scale was tipped in favor of less industrialized nations by the effects of the Yom Kippur War and the oil embargo of 1973, but by the 1980s it had swung back to power in the United States.
The effects of the oil embargo on Mexico and Nigeria are reflected in their experiences.
The oil boom of the 1970s led to long-standing projects for development and industrialization.
As the boom turned to bust, ethnic and religious divisions continued to undermine Nigeria, while Mexico's one-party state struggled to retain power as it yielded to liberalizing pressure from the United States.
The PRI had been in power since the revolution.
The PRI held every public office.
The labor unions were controlled by the PRI.
It was more than a party.
Land reform, universal public education, industrialization, and state ownership of the country's oil reserves were all part of the party.
The story of the PRI is that of Mexico's road from economic nationalism to liberal reforms in the 1970s and 1980s.
Luis Echeverria was elected president of the PRI in the aftermath of the Tlatelolco massacre, in order to regain the mantle of revolutionary reform by nationalizing utilities and increasing social spending.
He and his successor, Jose Lopez Portillo, embarked on development projects financed through projected future earnings of the state oil monopoly.
The Mexican government stopped making payments on its foreign debt in 1982 because of the decline in oil prices.
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