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Apush Period 1 Hyperdoc .docx Period 1: 1491-1607 Hyperdoc Key Concept 1.1 – As native populations migrated and settled across the vast expanse of North America over time, they developed distinct and increasingly complex societies by adapting to and transforming their diverse environments. Key Concept 1.2 – Contact among Europeans, Native Americans, and Africans resulted in the Columbian Exchange and significant social, cultural, and political changes on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. Introduction: Khan Academy Native American Societies Before Contact (Topics 1.1, 1.2) Watch the video https://youtu.be/Ht0FW7RwRmc Practice: Summarize the video in 2-3 sentences. Native American lived in the America’s for thousands of years but how they reached there is still a mystery. These native tribes survived by adapting to their surrounding environment. Some built irrigation systems while others hunted based on their regions and as time went on they evolved to adapt in society. Define three sister farming. The three sister farming was the farming of 3 crops- maize (corn), beans, and squash. Native Americans would grow these crops together because they thrived when planted next to each other. The three system farming was used by many tribes because of its success when farming. Read the Articles listed below and complete the guiding questions for each region. (Topic 1.2) https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/us-history/pre contact-and-early-colonial-era#before-contact Southwest 1. What did it mean to be Puebloan? You had to be Mogollon, Hohokam, or Anasaki ( Ancestral pueblos) . They lived in towns and villages. Lots of emphasis on agriculture. Navajos and Apaches were also pueblos but they practiced hunting and gathering more. Native American culture of the Southwest Native American culture of the West Native American culture of the Northeast Native American culture of the Southeast Native American culture of the Plains 2. What are they known for? They are known for their complex irrigation systems and they introduced corn in America. Chaco Canyon was a trade hub. West What is the climate and geography of the West and how did it impact cultural development of American Indians of that region? They lived off the land’s natural resources. Common practices were hunting, fishing, and gathering. Acorns, salmon, and bison were an important part of the diet. Hunting and gathering had spiritual significance. They would pray and do rituals. Northeast 1. What is the Iroquois League? A system used to solve the conflict between Iroquois and Algonquians. It maintained a level of autonomy over local affairs but the League would unite over trade policies and diplomacy issues. Many argue it was the 1st American democracy. 1. 2. How did the societes live? Societies lived in family based bands known as tribelets. Thye aligned culturally but hunted and gathered in smaller groups. People were more nomadic. Chinookan people practiced slavery to complete laborious tasks. Men would hunt and women would harvest. Southeast 1. What were the prominent Native American groups in this area known as? They were known as the 5 Civilized Tribes which included Cherokees, Choctaws, Chickasaws, Creeks, and seminoles. 2. What is the climate and geography of the Southeast and how did it impact cultural development? This area had the most fertile lands suited for agriculture. They use the slash and burn technique to provide nutrients to the crops. They also hunted and fished because towards the south there were a lot of waterways. They had a spiritual connection to sun, corn, water, etc. 3. What is the climate and geography of this region like and how did it impact cultural development? Consider how maize impacted development. They had an arid, hot climate which needed irrigation for farming. Maize was a spiritual gift and during the drought they prayed to natural entities for a good harvest. 2. How did geography impact their cultural development and daily lives? They shifted from hunting to agriculture because of temperate climates, accessible waterways, and good farming conditions. This led to more permanent settlements. 3. What are the “three sisters”? The three sisters are corn, squash, and beans, which were grown together.. It became a cash crop and was later used for trade. Plains 1. What is the climate and geography of the Plains and how did it impact cultural development of American Indians of that region? Only near waterways was farming possible. They farmed the 3 sisters, Hunting was very prominent especially after introducing horses. Rituals evolved around sun and nature. 2. What was life like for Native Americans on the Plains BEFORE Europeans and the introduction of the horse? Before Europeans, natives farmed more and hunting was harder. After the introduction of horses, hunting was much easier which led to competition. 3. How did the introduction of the horse change life on the Plains? Most natives became nomadic and hunting became very important. They had temporary teepees to live in. People would travel in groups called bands. Watch the Khan Academy video Origins of European Exploration in the Americas https://youtu.be/Wwk7__c7r50 and Christopher Columbus https://youtu.be/83JI9i8DZbs (Topic 1.3 and 1.4) Describe the Causes of European Exploration: The causes of European exploration were to trade goods with India and China without being taxed by the Middle East, to spread Chritianity to other lands, and for the glory of being the most powerful, rich nation with abundant resources. Watch the Columbian Exchange Khan Academy video https://youtu.be/pLijVYVDKlc (Topic 1.4) Practice: Define the Columbian Exchange in your own words The Columbian Exchange was the transfer of animals, crops, plants, and animals from the new world to the old world and from the old world to the new world. Along with crops and animals such as pigs and horses, the Europeans unintentionally brought diseases such as smallpox. Read the attached article to complete the practice below. https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/us-history/precontact-and-early-colonial-era/old-and-new-worlds-collide/a/the-co lumbian-exchange-ka Practice: List the items below on the graphic organizer, selecting Old or New World and the impact of the exchange. Sugar Corn Potatoes Coffee Beans Tobacco Grapes Horses Cattle Pigs Chocolate Smallpox Measles Syphilis Chickenpox Columbian Exchange Graphic Organizer (Topic 1.4) To the Americas “New World” To Europe “Old World” Impact Coffee beans Corn Coffee established plantations in the new world and was a cash crop. Corn increased populations in Europe. Sugar Potatoes Sugar became a cash crop that used slavery. Potatoes created better diets and increased the population . Grapes Chocolate Grapes expanded in demand and were used for wine. Chocolate became popular in Europe but was denounced by the church. Smallpox Tobacco Smallpox killed a majority of the native population. Tobacco became high in demand in Europe and turned into a cash crop. Horses Syphilis Horses intensified hunting practices. Syphilis was an epidemic that killed millions of Europeans. Measles Disease that killed many native populations. Cattle Cattle brought milk and beef to the new world. It was a domesticated animal. Pigs Pigs were another domesticated animal used for ranching, meat, etc. Chicken Pox Killed a lot of the native populations Describe the impact of the Columbian Exchange in your own words. The Columbian exchange had a positive impact in the old world and a negative impact in the new world. To the new world, it brought diseases that killed a majority of the native populations. However the old world was introduced to many crops such as potatoes that helped better the diets and increase European population. Topic 1.5 Labor, Slavery, and Caste in the Spanish Colonial System Use your textbook, notes and the video (https://youtu.be/aEy6xua3gl8) below to answer the questions below. 1. Explain the encomienda system. What was its purpose and how did it impact the relationship between the Spanish and the Native Americans? The encomienda system was a type of feudal system in which spanish men would provide protection for native americans in exchange for labor. It’s purpose was to get profit out of the plantations there and the relationship between the Spaniards and Natives was bad because Spaniards eventually abused them and forced them to work in terrible conditions. 2. How did the importation of slaves from Africa to the New World to work on plantations and in mines impact social and economic structures? It impacted social structures because Africans who were never in the new world, were forced to move here in large numbers. The amount of African people grew significantly in America. The economy did very well because of slaves because they did all the labor which produced crops to sell. 3. Explain the caste system developed by the Spanish. What were the different statuses and who was in them? The caste system classifies people by race. The Spaniards from Spain were the peninsulares and were on the top. Next was the creoles which were Spaniards born in America. Then you had mulattoes, mestizos, etc which were inferior because they had native or african ancestors. Topic 1.6 Cultural Interactions Between Europeans, Native Americans and Africans Use the video clip below to complete the chart https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DN7VNsKHL9c European Society Native American Society Gender Patrilineal Matrilineal Land People owned lands. They did not own lands. Religion Christinaity They believed in animism (spirits of nature), were polytheistic, and shamans had power. How did European views of Native Americans vary? ( Sepulveda v. de las Casas) How was the subjugation of Natives and Africans justified? Sepulveda advocated for harsh treatment of the natives and justofied slavery over Christianity. De las Casas was against the encomienda system and argued that natives should be treated like everyone else, as equals. He played an important role in ending the encomienda system. They were justified by the Curse of Ham which was a biblical justification for slavery, natives and africans were seen as savages, and race such as polygenism ( races of different origins) justified it by showing Christianity as superior.